In computer science, cryptography refers to secure information and communication techniques derived from mathematical concepts and a set of rule-based calculations called algorithms, to transform messages in ways that are hard to decipher.
These deterministic algorithms are used for cryptographic key generation, digital signing, verification to protect data privacy, web browsing on the internet and confidential communications such as credit card transactions and email.
Cryptography today generally focuses on a few specific objectives, such as:
- Non-repudiation – The creator/sender of the information cannot deny at a later stage their intentions in the creation or transmission of the information.
- Authentication – The sender and receiver can confirm each other’s identity and the origin/destination of the information.
- Confidentiality – The information cannot be understood by anyone for whom it was unintended.
- Integrity – The information cannot be altered in storage or transit between sender and intended receiver without the alteration being detected.
Experts in the field of cryptography often refer to the procedures and protocols of cryptography objectives as cryptosystems.
Cryptosystems are often thought to refer only to mathematical procedures and computer programs; however, they also include the regulation of human behavior, such as choosing hard-to-guess passwords, logging off unused systems and not discussing sensitive procedures with outsiders.
There are several types of cryptography. One common type is single-key or symmetric-key encryption algorithms that create a fixed length of bits known as a block cipher with a secret key that the creator/sender uses to encipher data (encryption) and the receiver uses to decipher it.
Want to learn more? Tonex offers Introduction to Cryptography, a 2-day course that introduces participants to the field of cryptography.
You will learn the foundations of modern cryptography, symmetric, types of cryptography, symmetric key cryptography, asymmetric key cryptography, hash functions, cryptographic algorithms, protocols, stream and block ciphering and other topics including: IPSec, SSL/TLS, OpenPGP, SSH, Kerberos Feistel Networks, traditional DES/3DES, AES, encryption modes of operation and principles of the public key algorithms.
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