MIL-STD-1553 is a military standard published by the United States Department of Defense that defines the mechanical, electrical and functional characteristics of a serial data bus.
In telecommunication and data transmission, serial communication is the process of sending data one bit at a time, sequentially, over a communication channel or computer bus. This is in contrast to parallel communication, where several bits are sent as a whole, on a link with several parallel channels.
A serial data bus allows multiple microprocessors to easily communicate with each other over a common pair of wires using a scheme similar to a telephone party line.
MIL-STD-1553 was originally designed for use with military avionics, but has also become commonly used in spacecraft onboard data handling (OBDH) subsystems, both military and civil. It features a dual redundant balanced line physical layer, a (differential) network interface, time division multiplexing, half-duplex command/response protocol, and up to 31 remote terminals (devices).
Since its inception in 1973 and in subsequent revisions during the ensuing years, MIL-STD-1553 has evolved into the predominant, internationally accepted networking standard for the integration of military platforms. Today, the standard has expanded beyond its traditional domain of U.S. Air Force and Navy aircraft to encompass applications for combat vehicles, ships, satellites, missiles, and the International Space Station Program, as well as advanced commercial avionic applications.
A single bus consists of a wire pair with 70–85 Ω impedance at 1 MHz. Where a circular connector is used, its center pin is used for the high (positive) Manchester bi-phase signal. Transmitters and receivers couple to the bus via isolation transformers, and stub connections branch off using a pair of isolation resistors and, optionally, a coupling transformer.
This reduces the impact of a short circuit and ensures that the bus does not conduct current through the aircraft. A Manchester code is used to present both clock and data on the same wire pair and to eliminate any DC component in the signal (which cannot pass the transformers).
The bit rate is 1.0 megabit per second (1 bit per μs). The combined accuracy and long-term stability of the bit rate is only specified to be within ±0.1%; the short-term clock stability must be within ±0.01%. The peak-to-peak output voltage of a transmitter is 18–27 V.
MIL-STD-1553 Training Program
Tonex offers MIL-1553 Training | MIL-STD-1553 Training, a 2-day course that covers key MIL-STD-1553 principles, features, protocol architecture, functional characteristics, technical components, design, operations, products, testing, cybersecurity and trends.
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This class is designed for systems engineer, project managers, system analysts, electronic warfare systems engineer, avionics engineers, design engineers, software and hardware engineers, cybersecurity specialists, cyber war analysts, project managers and anyone else who wants to understand what MIL-STD-1553 is and how it works.
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