Price: $2,999.00

Length: 3 Days
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Advanced Link 16 Training by Tonex

Military analysts generally agree that the evolution of Link 16 technology has improved warfighter platforms.

Link 16 is a secure system protocol that allows different military users to share data over the same network, which greatly enhances situational awareness during the chaos of battle.

Also known as JTIDS/TADIL J system, Link 16 is an encrypted, jam-resistant, node less tactical digital data link network established by JTIDS-compatible communication terminals that transmit and receive data messages.

Link 16 has become known as a reliable military communications medium for ground and sea personnel in battle. It is particularly vital for air defense. This is because situational awareness of any air attack and defense relies on crucial data communications and its networking. Because of increased situational awareness for pilots, the Link 16 system has a proven record of superiority.

And, despite Link 16’s success, the DoD is looking to expand Link 16 capabilities even further to maintain the tactical advantage needed to succeed across today’s data-driven, contested battlespace.

One vital idea is Concurrent Multiple Reception (CMR) in which a radio can demodulate and decrypt multiple messages from multiple users simultaneously.

In this modality, positional data is amplified. CMR enables more frequent, secure updates on the location of friendly and enemy forces. The data from multiple messages received simultaneously is fused into a common picture.

The heart of Link 16 is the Multifunctional Information Distribution System (MIDS). The DLS MIDS LVT represents the latest generation of Link 16 equipment incorporating secure data and voice into a single, small, affordable and highly reliable unit. MIDS Low-Volume Terminals (LVTs) are on most U.S. Air Force fighters, bombers and tankers, most U.S. Navy aircraft, ships, and US bases and air defense systems.

The benefits of Link 16 radios are many, including the ability for jam-resistant Link 16 radios to automatically exchange battlefield information — particularly locations of friendly and enemy aircraft, ships and ground forces — among themselves in a long-range, line-of-sight network.

Advanced Link 16 Training Course by Tonex

Advanced Link 16 Training  covers advanced Link 16 concepts, Link 16 network architecture, Link 16 planning, Link 16 security, Link 16 Cybersecurity Link 16 operation and Link 16 management.

Link 16 has many advantages over other existing tactical data links such as Link 11. The network in Link 16 is “nodeless” which means that the Link 16 network does not depend on any one of the terminals with a distributed operation. Link 16 terminals can support many levels of system and network management such as: monitoring of link or the equipment status by an external processor.  MIL-STD-1553, X.25, or Ethernet hardware and software is used for host traffic interchange. Terminals can offer a direct voice I/O at 16-kbps CVSD and 2.4-kbps LPC-10 voice coding.

Operational activation of Link-16 network has multiple steps such as overall coordination planning by joint planners with overall coordination plan, designation of net time reference(s), interoperability roles, and crypto allocations. An individual Net planner can prepare mission files such as initialization data, coordination nets, and continuity of operation roles.

In Link 16 cryptographic, keys play a key role in network and information security. These keys are distributed via electronic or electromechanical fill devices and normally might have to be loaded before or during deployment. Host system users might enter local and mission identification codes.

Local terminals have to achieve Coarse Synchronization by reading its internal chronometer and by listening for the Initial Entry Message within five minutes. This might lead to the establishment of Coarse Sync where the terminal can receive messages, and can begin the Fine Synchronization process.  Round Trip Timing messages with his “best neighbor” are exchanged which typically concludes within one to two minutes. Full-scale network operations can start when the local terminals achieves Fine Synch state.

Advanced Link 16 Training Objectives

Upon completing this Advanced Link 16 training course, the attendees will be able to:

  • Identify the motivating factors behind Link 16
  • Define the key features of Link 16
  • Identify challenges in Link 16 planning, operation and management and to address them
  • Sketch the Link 16 network architecture
  • List the functional requirements, operational requirements, security and performance targets for Link 16
  • Specify Link 16 radio operations and protocols
  • Summarize the Link 16 system acquisition and session setup procedures
  • Describe Link 16 synchronization operation and use of signals
  • Explain advanced Link 16 planning, management and operational aspects
  • Describe the key operational scenarios for Link 16 deployment

Course Agenda

Overview of Link 16

  • What is JTIDS / MIDS?
  • JTIDS / MIDS Architecture
  • Principles behind Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) and Timeslot in Link 16
  • Time Slots Recurrence Rate
  • Time Slot Allocation and Structure
  • Time Slot Components
  • Frequencies & Waveform
  • Message Packing
  • Link 16 Access Modes
  • Link 16 Networks
  • Link 16 Network Structures
  • Principles behind Nets and Networks
  • Network Participation Groups (NPGs)
  • Link 16 Terminal Waveform Generation
  • Link 16 Message Packing and Pulses
  • Principles of Link 16 Network Time
  • Network Roles
  • Time Slot Duty Factor
  • Link 16 Terminals
  • Terminal Synchronization
  • J-Series Messages
  • Role of Software Defined Radio (SDR) in Link 16 Terminals

Link 16 End Users Terminals

  • Multifunctional Information Distribution System (MIDS)
  • MIDS-LVT (Low volume terminal): LVT (1), LVT(2), or LVT(3)
  • MIDS-JTRS (Joint Tactical Radio System Terminals)
  • MIDS JTRS Components: Link-16, J-Voice, and TACAN functionality
  • MIDS-LVT with Block Upgrade 2 (BU2)
  • Crypto Modernization
  • Programmable Crypto
  • Link-16 enhanced throughput (ET)
  • Link-16 frequency remapping (FR)
  • JTRS Software Communication Architecture (SCA)
  • Airborne Networking Waveform (ANW)
  • MANET technologies including TSM-X, ANW2 and others
  • Small Tactical Terminal (STT) KOR-24A
  • Link 16 and Secure VHF/UHF Line-of-Sight Networking at the Tactical Edge
  • The L3Harris Falcon® IV AN/PRC-163 (SWaP-optimized handheld)
  • BATS-D (Battlefield Awareness and Targeting System- Dismounted)
  • AN/PRC-161 Handheld Link 16 Radio
  • BATS-E (Battlefield Awareness and Targeting System- Embedded) Embeddable, Very Low-SWaP Link 16 Radio

Link 16 Signal Processing

  • Security and encryption
  • Secure Data Unit
  • Communications modes
  • Reed-Solomon Encoding and Decoding
  • Error correction
  • Cyclic Code Shift Keying (CCSK)
  • Continuous Phase Shift Modulation
  • Principles behind MSK

Advanced Link 16 Network Planning and Management

  • TDL management and operation
  • NATO TDL management and operation
  • Link 16 network planning
  • Participation group communities
  • Link 16 network design
  • Link 16 network management
  • Link 16 system integration
  • Link 16 operations
  • Link 16 frequency operations and management

Link 16 Network Design and Capacity Calculation

  • Link 16 network design principles
  • Link 16 capacity models and calculation
  • Link 16 Multi-Net
  • Track and NPG capacity modeling and calculations
  • Time Slot (TS) block assignment
  • Initial planning process
  • Pre-mission planning
  • Link 16 architecture planning
  • Link 16 network roles and responsibilities
  • Link 16 configuration
  • Link 16 cryptonet management
  • Link 16 segment
  • Link 16 network management

Link 16 System Life cycle Planning and Management

  • The TDL life cycle
  • Successful robust TDL network
  • TDL optimization and interoperability
  • Integration between participating platforms
  • successful integration at both physical and data levels
  • Battle space Management process
  • Long Range Planning
  • Data Link Operations Center (DLOC)
  • Understanding different types of platforms
  • Estimating ranges
  • Other national and international agreements
  • Primary link
  • Multi Link architecture
  • Link 11 and Link 16
  • Short Range Planning
  • OPTASK link (OTL) messages
  • JTIDS Forecast Report (JFAR)
  • Liaisons
  • Mission planning
  • Configuration of MIDS Terminals sites
  • Allocations of Link 16 STN, ID Set and time on/off task
  • Link 16 design
  • Link 16 network initialization
  • Link 16 Network Management System (NMS)
  • Network Time Reference (NTR)
  • Synchronizing with an External Network Time Reference
  • Synchronization
  • Time quality
  • Active and passive Synchronization
  • External Time Reference Network (ETRN)
  • System Time Reference Network (STRN)
  • Monitoring and managing network
  • Compliance monitoring
  • Link 16 network health
  • Issues joining a network
  • Relay status
  • Interoperability
  • Radiation restrictions
  • Frequency management
  • Identifying problems
  • Network troubleshooting
  • Radio relay control
  • Control messages

Joint Range Extension Applications Protocol (JREAP)

  • Introduction to Joint Range Extension Applications Protocol
  • MIL-STD 3011 Appendix-A, Appendix-B and Appendix-C
  • Management messages
  • Operator Text, Echo, Round Trip Timing, Common Time Reference, Remote Filter, Latency, Special Event, and Secondary Track Number
  • Gateways implementing MIL-STD 3011 Appendix A, B and
  • JREAP Gateway Managers
  • JREAP Planning
  • JREAP Common Messages
  • JREAP Application Block
  • J-Series Messages applied to JREAP
  • JREAP  Free-Text
  • JREAP Management Messages

Link 16 System Engineering Guidelines

  • Link 16 System ConOps
  • Link 16 System requirements
  • Creating Link 16 system spec
  • Link 16 system analysis and design
  • Link 16 system implementation
  • Link 16 system verification and validation procedures
  • Link 16 system integration
  • Bottom up vs.Top down integration principles
  • Link 16 system integration requirements
  • J-Series Message and Non J-Series messages
  • Tonex Link 16 System Engineering Templates and Tools

Advanced Link 16 Network Planning, Design Network Management

  • Situational Awareness (SA)
  • C2 to C2 Battle Management
  • C2 to Fighter mission assignments
  • Fighter to Fighter information exchange
  • ISR operations
  • Imagery
  • Voice communications
  • Frequency clearance agreements
  • Time slot duty factor
  • Interference protection
  • Restrictions scenarios
  • Time slot map creation
  • Planning and modeling exercises

Case Studies

  • Unique Platforms on Network
  • Embedded in Integrated Avionics
  • F-35
  • Multi-Channel Terminals
  • Weapons and Small Platforms
  • Ships
  • UAVs and small ISR
  • Helicopters and Cargo
  • Ground Vehicles

Workshop 1: Link-16  Penetration Test Techniques

  • Link 16 Digital Forensics
  • Link 16 Information Assurance and Security
  • Link 16 Network Defense
  • What is a Link-16 Penetration Test?
  • Vulnerability Scan
  • Link 16 Security Assessment
  • Effectiveness of Link 16 security controls against
  • Compliance audits
  • Controls and correct configurations
  • Determining the feasibility of a particular set of Link 16 attacks
  • Higher-risk vulnerabilities
  • Lower-risk vulnerabilities exploited in a particular sequence
  • Assessing the magnitude of potential operational impacts of successful attacks
  • Testing the ability of Link 16 network defenders
  • Post security incident

Advanced Link 16 Training

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