Price: $2,999.00

Length: 3 Days
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Advanced Link 16 Training

A Link 16 tactical data link allows for the exchange of real-time situational awareness information and voice communications across the battlespace.

The true value of Link 16 lies in the engagement when it’s critical for all military personnel from a single dismounted ground warfighter to a pilot supporting the from the air to be able to see a complete air/ground picture with all operators and assets accounted for.

Another crucial aspect of Link 16 is its anti-jamming technology that prevents the enemy from eavesdropping. In the Link 16 TDL this is accomplished through “frequency hopping,” a method used to rapidly switch transmitting radio signals among several frequency channels.

Link 16 originated in the 1970s and ’80s to provide situational awareness, tracking and targeting information from airborne warning and control system (AWACS) aircraft and warships to Air Force F-15 and Navy F-14 interceptors. The system allowed aircraft to see the radar track data of the AWACS’ radar, which had an operating range of 300 miles.

An additional benefit of the system was that it allowed data link equipped aircraft to receive the radar tracking data without the need for the tactical aircraft to activate their own radar systems.

Once the system was installed on F-15s and F-14s, the ability to see the extended radar picture was revolutionary.

Over the years, Link 16’s technological capabilities have evolved. For example, Viasat introduced systems such as its Small Tactical Terminal (STT) to meet growing needs of mobility. Weighing 15 pounds and the size of a loaf of bread, the STT can fit in a variety of platforms. STT opened the way to introducing Link 16 into a variety of new platforms, such as helicopters, unmanned aerial vehicles and ground vehicles.

Earlier this year Viasat announced it had obtained a U.S. Air Force contract to build a small satellite equipped with a Link 16 military communications terminal that will operate in low Earth orbit.

This will be the first time space-based link 16 radios will be tested to communicate with ground vehicles, aircraft, naval vessels and dismounted troops.

If all goes according to plan, the Air Force will likely launch similar satellites to provide persistent coverage. In other words, once it’s proven that Link 16 can operate in the space environment, this should open things up for a constellation of tactical data links.

This project has significant ramifications and a huge potential given that Link 16 is now such a widely used system with more than 100,000 terminals fielded by the U.S. military and its allies.

Advanced Link 16 Training Course by Tonex

Advanced Link 16 Training  covers advanced Link 16 concepts, Link 16 network architecture, Link 16 planning, Link 16 security, Link 16 Cybersecurity Link 16 operation and  Link 16 management.

Link 16 has many advantages over other existing tactical data links such as Link 11. The network in Link 16 is “nodeless” which means that the Link 16 network does not depend on any one of the terminals with a distributed operation. Link 16 terminals can support many levels of system and network management such as: monitoring of link or the equipment status by an external processor.  MIL-STD-1553, X.25, or Ethernet hardware and software is used for host traffic interchange. Terminals can offer a direct voice I/O at 16-kbps CVSD and 2.4-kbps LPC-10 voice coding.

Operational activation of Link-16 network has multiple steps such as overall coordination planning by joint planners with overall coordination plan, designation of net time reference(s), interoperability roles, and crypto allocations. An individual Net planner can prepare mission files such as initialization data, coordination nets, and continuity of operation roles.

In Link 16 cryptographic, keys play a key role in network and information security. These keys are distributed via electronic or electromechanical fill devices and normally might have to be loaded before or during deployment. Host system users might enter local and mission identification codes.

Local terminals have to achieve Coarse Synchronization by reading its internal chronometer and by listening for the Initial Entry Message within five minutes. This might lead to the establishment of Coarse Sync where the terminal can receive messages, and can begin the Fine Synchronization process.  Round Trip Timing messages with his “best neighbor” are exchanged which typically concludes within one to two minutes. Full-scale network operations can start when the local terminals achieves Fine Synch state.

Advanced Link 16 Training Objectives

Upon completing this Advanced Link 16 training course, the attendees will be able to:

  • Identify the motivating factors behind Link 16
  • Define the key features of Link 16
  • Identify challenges in Link 16 planning, operation and management and to address them
  • Sketch the Link 16 network architecture
  • List the functional requirements, operational requirements, security and performance targets for Link 16
  • Specify Link 16 radio operations and protocols
  • Summarize the Link 16 system acquisition and session setup procedures
  • Describe Link 16 synchronization operation and use of signals
  • Explain advanced Link 16 planning, management and operational aspects
  • Describe the key operational scenarios for Link 16 deployment

Course Agenda

Overview of Link 16

  • What is JTIDS / MIDS?
  • JTIDS / MIDS Architecture
  • Principles behind Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) and Timeslot in Link 16
  • Time Slots Recurrence Rate
  • Time Slot Allocation and Structure
  • Time Slot Components
  • Frequencies & Waveform
  • Message Packing
  • Link 16 Access Modes
  • Link 16 Networks
  • Link 16 Network Structures
  • Principles behind Nets and Networks
  • Network Participation Groups (NPGs)
  • Link 16 Terminal Waveform Generation
  • Link 16 Message Packing and Pulses
  • Principles of Link 16 Network Time
  • Network Roles
  • Time Slot Duty Factor
  • Link 16 Terminals
  • Terminal Synchronization
  • J-Series Messages

Link 16 Signal Processing

  • Security and encryption
  • Secure Data Unit
  • Communications modes
  • Reed-Solomon Encoding and Decoding
  • Error correction
  • Cyclic Code Shift Keying (CCSK)
  • Continuous Phase Shift Modulation
  • Principles behind MSK

Advanced Link 16 Network Planning and Management

  • TDL management and operation
  • NATO TDL management and operation
  • Link 16 network planning
  • Participation group communities
  • Link 16 network design
  • Link 16 network management
  • Link 16 system integration
  • Link 16 operations
  • Link 16 frequency operations and management

Link 16 Network Design and Capacity Calculation

  • Link 16 network design principles
  • Link 16 capacity models and calculation
  • Link 16 Multi-Net
  • Track and NPG capacity modeling and calculations
  • Time Slot (TS) block assignment
  • Initial planning process
  • Pre-mission planning
  • Link 16 architecture planning
  • Link 16 network roles and responsibilities
  • Link 16 configuration
  • Link 16 cryptonet management
  • Link 16 segment
  • Link 16 network management

Link 16 System Life cycle Planning and Management

  • The TDL life cycle
  • Successful robust TDL network
  • TDL optimization and interoperability
  • Integration between participating platforms
  • successful integration at both physical and data levels
  • Battlespace Management process
  • Long Range Planning
  • Data Link Operations Center (DLOC)
  • Understanding different types of platforms
  • Estimating ranges
  • Other national and international agreements
  • Primary link
  • Multi Link architecture
  • Link 11 and Link 16
  • Short Range Planning
  • OPTASK link (OTL) messages
  • JTIDS Forecast Report (JFAR)
  • Liaisons
  • Mission planning
  • Configuration of MIDS Terminals sites
  • Allocations of Link 16 STN, ID Set and time on/off task
  • Link 16 design
  • Link 16 network initialization
  • Link 16 Network Management System (NMS)
  • Network Time Reference (NTR)
  • Synchronizing with an External Network Time Reference
  • Synchronization
  • Time quality
  • Active and passive Synchronization
  • External Time Reference Network (ETRN)
  • System Time Reference Network (STRN)
  • Monitoring and managing network
  • Compliance monitoring
  • Link 16 network health
  • Issues joining a network
  • Relay status
  • Interoperability
  • Radiation restrictions
  • Frequency management
  • Identifying problems
  • Network troubleshooting
  • Radio relay control
  • Control messages

Joint Range Extension Applications Protocol (JREAP)

  • Introduction to Joint Range Extension Applications Protocol
  • MIL-STD 3011 Appendix-A, Appendix-B and Appendix-C
  • Management messages
  • Operator Text, Echo, Round Trip Timing, Common Time Reference, Remote Filter, Latency, Special Event, and Secondary Track Number
  • Gateways implementing MIL-STD 3011 Appendix A, B and
  • JREAP Gateway Managers
  • JREAP Planning
  • JREAP Common Messages
  • JREAP Application Block
  • J-Series Messages applied to JREAP
  • JREAP  Free-Text
  • JREAP Management Messages

Link 16 System Engineering Guidelines

  • Link 16 System ConOps
  • Link 16 System requirements
  • Creating Link 16 system spec
  • Link 16 system analysis and design
  • Link 16 system implementation
  • Link 16 system verification and validation procedures
  • Link 16 system integration
  • Bottom up vs.Top down integration principles
  • Link 16 system integration requirements
  • J-Series Message and Non J-Series messages
  • Tonex Link 16 System Engineering Templates and Tools

Advanced Link 16 Network Planning, Design Network Management

  • Situational Awareness (SA)
  • C2 to C2 Battle Management
  • C2 to Fighter mission assignments
  • Fighter to Fighter information exchange
  • ISR operations
  • Imagery
  • Voice communications
  • Frequency clearance agreements
  • Time slot duty factor
  • Interference protection
  • Restrictions scenarios
  • Time slot map creation
  • Case studies
  • Hands on planning and modeling exercises
  • Workshops


Advanced Link 16 Training

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