Overview of Link 16 System Architecture
Introduced 40 years ago to coordinate NATO air defenses during the Cold War, Link 16 communications continue to evolve into smaller and more diverse form factors, going from theater commands to individual warfighters.
Link 16 is a military tactical data link network designed to provide warfighters operating on land, in the air and at sea with secure, anti-jam Line-of-Sight (LoS) communications.
According to military analysts, in contrast to other communications link waveforms, Link 16 improves security, jam resistance, and situational awareness, while also increasing data throughput and the capacity of information exchanged.
In addition, Link 16 provides secure voice capability, relative navigation capability, and precise participant location and identification.
Link 16 data is transmitted via Link 16 terminals found in a range of platforms, including aircraft, surface ships, ground vehicles, missile defense systems, networked weapons, and command and control networks.
These terminals can operate Link 16 capabilities exclusively or can combine Link 16 functions with other advanced military waveforms. To assure continuous secure and uninterrupted communications, compulsory Link 16 protocol updates are implemented as needed across the network, with system sunset dates pre-announced to all network participants so they can update their various platforms’ equipment and procedures effectively.
A Link 16 system is also known for its functional and sturdy design. Link 16 isn’t just a transport layer, it also includes a message set and established business rules for the execution of real-time warfare.
This requires Link 16 units to have situational awareness, transactions for command and control, target designation, and assignment and engagement designations.
Analysts claim Link 16 is also guided by a very good “rule book.” This rule book makes it clear how military personnel communicate when someone gives them an order and how they acknowledge it.
This rule book was originally created during the Cold War, while much of it describes and supports air-war operations, there is also a surface and ground war component.
Overview of Link 16 System Architecture Course by Tonex
Overview of Link 16 System Architecture is designed for engineers, analysts to learn about Link-16 architecture, building blocks and how it works.
Overview of Link 16 System Architecture is a combination of theoretical and practical concepts. Link 16 is a frequency-hopping, jam-resistant, high-capacity data link. Functioning on the base of Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA), where 128 time slots per second are assigned among contributing JTIDS Units (JUs), time slots are prepared into numerous operational Network Participation Groups (NPGs).
Link 16 architecture allows for real-time transfer of combat data, voice communications, imagery, and relative navigation information between dispersed battle elements, using crypto, and frequency hopping.
Link 16 uses Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) to provide multiple, simultaneous communication paths through various nets. Link 16 communications waveforms are secure and jam resistance. Link 16 provides situational awareness, data throughput and the capacity of information exchanged. Link 16 system architecture provide secure voice capability, relative navigation capability, and precise participant location and identification.
Link 16 data is transmitted via Link 16 terminals with multiple type of platforms with different architecture including JTIDS, MIDS LVT and MIDS JTRS (using SDR). Link 16 terminals are used by aircraft, surface ships, ground vehicles, missile defense systems, networked enabled weapons, and command and control networks.
Who Should Attend?
This course is designed for electronic warfare, avionics systems engineers, system architects, hardware and software engineers, and employees with little or no Link 16 experience. The course is also useful for those who have experience with Link 16 but have never had any formal training on Link 16 system architecture.
What You Will Learn
- An overview of Link 16
- A summary of Link 16 key features, principles, and applications
- Overview of Link 16 building blocks
- Link 16 architecture components
- An overview of Link 16 architecture and associated terminals
- How to design a Link 16 capability
Upon the completion of Link 16 architecture training , the attendees will:
- Learn the key concepts behind Link 16 / JTIDS / MIDS LVT/MIDS JTRS
- Discuss Link 16 system components.
- Identify the role of key network nodes, interfaces, protocols, control and related protocols
- Describe TDMA and CDMA and access mode
- Describe Network Participation Groups (NGP) and J-Series Messages
- Discuss various Link 16 terminals and message packing and pulses.
- Describe Link 16 Network Access Modes, Network Time, Network Time Reference (NTR) and Terminal Synchronization
- Discuss Link 16 Network Roles, Relays and Pulse Deconfliction
- Calculate Link 16 capacity and Time Slot Duty Factor (TSDF)
- Describe Link 16 MSEC/TSEC methods
- Discuss the role of Joint Range Extension Applications Protocol (JREAP) in Link 16 architecture
- Discuss Link 16 Network Enable Weapons (NEW)
Overview of Link 16
- Basic Link 16 principles and purpose
- Link 16 capabilities
- Link 16 architecture and components
- Link 16 protocol vs. terminals
- Overview of MIL-STD-6016
- Tactical Data Link (TDL) 16 Message Standard
Overview of Link 16 System Architecture, Protocols and Components
- Overview of Link 16 Operations
- Link 16 Architecture
- Link 16 Network Time and Network Roles
- Link 16 Terminal Navigation and Network Relays
- Link 16 Terminals and Platforms/Capabilities
- Link 16 Configurations / Maintenance
- Link 16 Data Terminals
- Voice Transmission and Reception over Link 16
Principles of Multiple Access in Link 16
- TDMA Principles in the Link 16
- Link 16 Frequencies and Time Slots
- Link 16 Interference Protection Features
- Time Slot Duty Factor (TDSF)
- Participation Groups
- Network Operations, Roles and Responsibilities
- Precise Participant Location and Identification (PLLI)
- Link 16 Security
- Range Extension Techniques
Link 16 System Capabilities
- Link 16 Basic Capabilities
- Tactical Data Link 16
- Link 16 Architecture
- Link 16 System Operation
- Time Slots
- Exchange real-time tactical data
- Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)
- Acquisition & maintenance of system time
- Time Slot
- Link 16 Division of Network Time
- Epochs, Frames and Timeslots
- Network Participation Groups (NPG)
- Terminal variations
- Class I, Class II, MIDS (LVT-1, LVT-2, LVT-3)
- MIDSA JTRS
- Principles of Software Defined Radio (SDR)
- DoD’s Software Communication Architecture (SCA)
- Host platform integration requirements
Architectural Elements of Link 16 Systems
- Architecture Examples
- Time Slot Blocks (TSBs)
- Message Construction
- Net synchronization
- Frequencies and Interference Protection Feature (IPF)
- Range Extension by Relay
- Time Slot Reallocation (TSR)
- Precise Participant Location and Identification (PPLI)
- Link-16 Enhance Throughput (LET)
- VMF Message Catalog
- Video on Link-16
- Multifunctional Information Distribution System (MIDS)
- MIDS-LVT (Low volume terminal): LVT (1), LVT(2), or LVT(3)
- MIDS-JTRS (Joint Tactical Radio System Terminals)
- Software Defined Radio (SDR)
- JTRS Software Communication Architecture (SCA)
- MIDS JTRS Components: Link-16, J-Voice, and TACAN functionality
- Link-16 enhanced throughput (ET)
- Link-16 frequency remapping (FR)
- Programmable crypto
- The L3Harris Falcon® IV AN/PRC-163 (SWaP-optimized handheld)
- BATS-D (Battlefield Awareness and Targeting System- Dismounted)
- AN/PRC-161 Handheld Link 16 Radio
- BATS-E (Battlefield Awareness and Targeting System- Embedded) Embeddable, Very Low-SWaP Link 16 Radio
Overview of Link 16 NPGs
- Network Participation Group (NPG)
- 1 Initial Entry
- 2/3 RTT-A/RTT-B
- 4 Network Management
- 5/6 PPLI and Status
- 7 Surveillance
- 8 Mission Management/ Weapons Coordination
- 9 Control
- 11 Image Transfer
- 12/13 Voice A/B
- 18 Network Enabled Weapons
- 19/20 Fighter-to-Fighter A&B
- 21 Engagement Coordination
- 27 Joint Net PPLI
- 28 Distributed Network Management
LINK 16 Network Management Operational Scenarios
- Link 16 Architecture and Management
- Link 16 Network Planning and Design
- Related J series messages
Link 16 Network Enabled Weapon (NEW)
- Introduction to Link 16 Network Enable Weapons
- Net Enabled Weapons supporting missions Use Cases
- Network Enabled Weapons (NEW) Architecture
- Network Enabled Weapon Messages (J11.X)
- NEW Implementation Requirements
- In-Flight Target Updates (IFTUs)
- Targeting and engagement of Moving Targets
- In-flight Retargeting/Reallocation
- In-flight Abort
- Sensor to Weapon 3PS Targeting (S2W 3PS)
- Weapon to Weapon Coordination (Cooperative Attack)
TONEX Link 16 Systems Engineering, Verification and Validation (V&V) Plans and Procedures
- Link 16 Network Integrity V&V
- Link 16 NPG Status V&V
- Cryptonet V&V
- Frequency Planning and Management V&V
- Time Slot Duty Factor (TSDF) Tests
- OPTASK Link V&V
- Multi-Link Network V&V
- Roles / Responsibilities V&V
Principles of Joint Range Extension Applications Protocol (JREAP)
- What is JREAP?
- Tactical data over digital media and networks
- JREAP/TADIL Testing/Simulation
- JREAP Application Block
- Joint Range Extension (JRE) Gateway
- JREAP A – UHF DAMA
- JREAP B – Serial
- JREAP C – Ethernet