Price: $1,999.00

Length: 2 Days
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Link 22 Training

Link 22 is the newest NATO standard for tactical information exchange between military units.

Link 22’s predecessor, Link 16, was intended to replace or augment many existing TDLs as the joint standard for data link information exchange, but its use is limited by the cost of implementation and support.

The development of Link 22 started in 1992 as the NATO Improved Link Eleven (NILE) project. The goals of this project were to replace the aging Link 11 standard, complement Link 16, improve allied interoperability and enhance mission performance.

The Link 22 standard was developed to overcome weak points of earlier data links. Such weak points include Link 11’s lack of robustness, susceptibility to interference, and low data rate. Link 16’s weaknesses include a short range and the use of civil aviation frequencies.

The NATO member nations that participated in the development of Link 22 are Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom and the US.

Today, the Link 22 standard is operational. Link 22 transmits data in fixed-format messages that are compatible with Link 16 formats. Like Link 16, communication channels are shared by using TDMA protocols.

The specification for Link 22 is the Standardized NATO Agreement (STANAG) 5522. The structure of the Link 22 network layer allows for the transmission of any kind and length of data with automated routing and relaying mechanisms. Link 22 also features automated bandwidth reallocation depending on user requirements and availabilities.

Link 22 is primarily (but not limited to) a maritime capability to support BLOS operations. It enables deployed assets to perform a variety of Information Exchange Requirements (IERs) without the need for satellites. Those IERs involve the exchange of situational awareness (SA).

The use and connectivity of deployed assets utilizing the HF media path is vulnerable to change. To combat this, Link 22 has more robust waveforms whereby in poor radio frequency (RF) conditions improved coding and modulation is used to maintain connectivity at the expense of throughput.

The ability to use HF provides a BLOS advantage over Link 16. It has also been designed with a data exchange message set that works seamlessly with Link 16. These messages are known as F and FJ-Series. While F-Series messages are newly defined for Link 22, FJ-Series are in simple terms a ‘cut and paste’ of a Link 16 J-Series message.

Today, Link 16 is still the primary capability for many nations which need to operate with the US, and therefore Link 16 is the key enabler to connect the joint force.

However, despite Link 16’s global capabilities, experts in this area contend it is inefficient when it comes to actual data throughput.

Link 16 offers far more bits per second than Link 22, but it is inefficient with the bandwidth it has available.

It’s also important to understand that for every message sent over Link 22, it provides several quality of service features ranging from priority and level of reliability through to perishability and the use of different addressing techniques.

Also, each unit’s SNC will calculate if relay is needed for each individual message dependent upon its own connectivity with other units.

Link 22 Training Course by Tonex

Link 22 Training, Tonex offers a variety of training programs to meet your applications of Link 22. Link 11 was adapted by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) officially the early 1960s as a Tactical Data Link defined it inside International STANdardization AGreement (STANAG) 5511. United States adopted and defined Link 11 concepts as  Tactical Digital Information Link-A (TADIL-A).

Link 11 is an older tactical data link and does not offer today’s needed capabilities and performance desired  operational community. Link 16 is another old technology, a complex and robust tactical data link. Even Link 16 attempts to meet current operational requirements but it does not offer recently derived capabilities and operational concepts (ConOps) and it needs extensive planning and much more difficult to manage.

Link 22 offers the latest technology attempts to use COTS products. Link 22:

  • Provides a simple-to-use functions that require minimal operator interaction
  • As an excellent stand-alone tactical data link can interwork with Link 16
  • Link 22 enhances tactical data link capabilities

Who Should Attend

  • Managers, and procurers to get Executive-level information
  • Planners, operators, and technicians to gain user-level and operational information (ConOps)
  • Any other technical professionals to get technical-level information

Link 22 Training Topics

Introduction  to Link 22

  • What is Link 22?
  • NILE (NATO Improved Link Eleven)
  • Link 22 Features and Functions
  • Link 22 Benefits
  • Link 22 as a hybrid between MIDS Link 16 and Link11
  • Link 11, Link 16 and Link 22 Similarities and Differences
  • Link 22 Tactical Messages
  • Link 22 Networks
  • Link 22 Components
  • Network Cycle Structure (NCS)
  • Data Link Processor (DLP)
  • System Network Controller (SNC)
  • Signal Processing Controller (SPC)
  • Link 22 Acquisition
  • Link 22 Operation
  • Automated Network Management Functions

NILE Communications Equipment (NCE) components

  • System Network Controller (SNC)
  • Link-Level COMSEC (LLC)
  • Signal Processing Controllers (SPCs)
  • Radios
  • Transmission Request Handler
  • Distributed Protocols
  • No Single Point of Failure
  • Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)
  • Link 11 HF/UHF
  • Link 16 JTIDS
  • Link 22 HF (fixed frequency)
  • Link 22 UHF (fixed frequency)
  • 3 HF AND 1 UHF
  • 2 HF AND 2 UHF

Link 22 BLOS and Automatic Relay Capabilities

  • Operator Interface System (TDS/DLP)
  • SNC Processor Hardware
  • Link-Level COMSEC (LLC)
  • Signal Processing Controller (SPC)
  • Radio System
  • Time Of Day (TOD)
  • Source Hardware
  • Connecting Cables and Equipment

Link 22 Technology Overview

  • Link 22 Architecture
  • Extended Protocols
  • Internal Protocols
  • DLP / SNC Interface
  • Link 22 Media Subsystem
  • Link 22 Modes of Operation and Duties
  • Link 22 Modes of Operation
  • Link 22 Network Initialization
  • Link 22 Sub-System Functional Overview
  • Link 22 Integration

Link 22 Key  Features

  • Link 22 System Architecture
  • Tactical data transmitted on Link 22
  • Tactical Message Transmission Quality of Service (QoS)
  • Parameters Media
  • Network Cycle Structure Initialization
  • Network Management
  • Operation
  • Joining a Network
  • Resilience
  • Congestion Management
  • Secure Communications
  • Beyond Line-Of-Sight Communication (BLSE) Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)
  • Dynamic TDMA (DTDMA)
  • Fixed Frequency or Frequency hopping techniques
  • HF (2-30 MHz)
  • UHF (225-400 MHz) bands
  • Fixed Format Messages
  • Link 22 Tactical Messages
  • Link 22 Super Network

Link 22 Operation

  • Tactical Data Links Providers
  • Overview
  • Planning
  • Link 22 Operations
  • Tactical Messages
  • Link 22 Unit Data
  • Tactical Message Words (TMW)
  • Link 22 Super Network
  • Super Network Management Unit (SNMU)
  • Network Management Units (NMUs)
  • Link 22 Interoperability in a Multilink Environment
  • Operational Tasking (OPTASK)
  • Network Cryptographic Resource Description (OLM Set)
  • Network Cycle Structure
  • Starting a new Network
  • Shutdown of a Unit
  • Shutdown of a Network
  • Shutdown of the entire Super Network
  • Optimization of  Network Performance
  • Controlling Management Roles
  • Joining a Network
  • Managing Radio Silence Status
  • Managing Crypto Key Status

Network Management and Control

  • Network Management Function
  • Network and Monitoring Management
  • Network Management Unit
  • Link 22 Network Cycle Structure
  • Link 22 Network Information
  • Link 22 Network Participants
  • Link 22 Network Media Parameters Settings
  • Non Command and Control
  • Network Participation Group (NPG)
  • Link 22 Super Network Information
  • Link 22 Unit Bandwidth Requirement

Link 22 QoS Features

  • Link 22 Unit Link Reception Quality
  • Message Contents
  • Priority
  • Reliability
  • Data Originator
  • Identification
  • Perishability
  • Indicator Flags Addressing

Link 22 Security

  • Transmission Security
  • COMmunications SECurity (COMSEC) system
  • Integral encryption/decryption device inside the Link 22 system
  • Cryptographic device (crypto)
  • De data link level
  • Link Level COMSEC (LLC)
  • Optional use of frequency hopping radios


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