|Introduction to Smart Grid Training
|Smart Grid Certificate
|Smart Grid Cybersecurity Training
|Smart Grid Security Training
|Smart Grid Training Workshop
Smart Grid Training
The Smart Grid is the Department of Energy’s (DOE) investment in the future.
The intent is that the Smart Grid will replace the outdated and inefficient North American power grid that has been in continuous operation for 150 years.
A Smart Grid is a modern power generation, transmission and distribution system that can automate and manage the increasing complexity and needs of electricity in the 21st century. The benefits of this new technology aim to:
- Integrate and support renewable energy sources such as solar, wind and hydro
- Empower consumers with real-time information about their energy consumption
- Assist utility companies to reduce outages
Just like the old power grid of power plants, transmission lines and transformers, the Smart Grid will also have multiple key elements such as intelligent appliances that decide when to consume power based on the pre-set user preferences.
Additionally, expect Smart Grids to feature:
- Smart substations that control critical and non-critical operational data, such as power factor performance, breaker, battery and transformer status.
- A smart distribution characterized by automated monitoring and analysis tools, superconducting cables for long-distance transmission, self-healing, self-optimization and self-balancing.
- Smart generation — a system capable of “learning” the unique behavior of power generation resources to optimize energy production and to automatically maintain voltage, frequency and power factor standards based on feedback from multiple points in the grid.
- Universal access to affordable, low-carbon electrical power generation and storage solutions.
While not expected to be completed before 2035, the Smart Grid infrastructure has already made its appearance in half of U.S. homes in the form of Smart Meters, which are capable of two-way communication between the consumer and power provider. This makes detection of power outages, billing, data collection and dispatching of repair crews easier and faster.
Smart Grid Training Courses by Tonex
Smart Grid training programs offers a variety of different courses in Smart Grids in order to prepare you for real world Smart Grid challenges. Our courses offer Smart Grid training in different aspects, such as:
This course is designed for all engineers and Smart Grid professionals in order to understand the concept of Smart Grids, main components of a Smart Grid such as loads, distribution networks, transformers, power electronic based devices and SCADA systems. Moreover, it will provide you a step by step introduction to energy management systems (EMS) and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA), distribution operators and market structures in Smart Grids.
By taking the introduction to Smart Grid training, you will be introduced to main components of a Smart Grid such as smart inverters, micro inverters, voltage source converters, smart meters and renewable energy sources.
Moreover, you will learn about Smart Grid operation and control and topics such as: voltage control, reactive/active power sharing in smart grids, peak shaving control, load shedding, black start capability and maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control for renewable energy sources.
Introduction to Smart Grid training also introduces you to energy management systems in Smart Grids such as EMS in generation, EMS in distribution networks, and real time SCADA for EMS applications. You will also be introduced to security concerns in Smart Grid and different types of vulnerabilities threatening the Smart Grid networks and different approaches to tackle the security problems.
Smart Grid certificate introduces different topics in Smart Grids such as:
- Smart Grid operation
- Smart Grid Control
- Smart Grid Security
Smart Grid operation covers the main components of Smart Grid such as PV systems, Wind Farms, and Transmission Networks in the smart grid. Moreover, learn about SCADA systems and energy management systems (EMS) in Smart Grids.
Smart Grid control introduces you to the main topics in linear and advanced control in smart grid. Linear control includes the main control approaches in Smart Grids such as vector current control, droop control and active/reactive power control. Advanced control covers the advanced control technologies implemented in Smart Grids such as primary, secondary and tertiary control, Nyquist stability criterion for Smart Grid control and bode plots for stability analysis of Smart Grid controllers.
Smart Grid security covers the main topics in Smart Grid cybersecurity by introducing different types of attacks in Smart Grids from denial of service and malwares to terrorist attacks. Moreover, security standards will be introduced for Smart Grids and SCADA systems. You will also learn about high level security requirements of Smart Grids and topics such as: risk management, personnel security and security planning approaches.
Smart Grid security introduces you a variety of topics in Smart Grid security such as security issues related to traditional grid security and Smart Grid modern security issues. Moreover, recent vulnerabilities reported for Smart Grids will be introduced.
Smart Grid Architecture Model (SGAM) will be derived and analyzed and information assurance requirements such as confidentiality, integrity, availability, accountability, and security concepts will be introduced.
To give you more information about Smart Grid security, you will be introduced to the advanced metering infrastructure and security issues related to smart meters. Smart meters are the main parts in Smart Grids as they transfer a huge amount of data through wireless systems. Another security concern in Smart Grid is the demand response events where automated demand response security is an issue. This course will help you to tackle all the demand response security issues in Smart Grids.
The audience will learn about the security problems in SCADA systems and network vulnerability issues. To give you more information about Smart Grid security, topics such as Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle security and risk assessment studies are also covered in this training.
Smart Grid cybersecurity training will help you to understand the main concepts in Smart Grids such as wind farms, solar panels, security layers of Smart Grids and security concepts and vulnerabilities of Smart Grids.
In this training, you will also learn about cybersecurity context in Smart Grid such as CO2 emissions and clean energy applications, Smart Grid cybersecurity committee (SGCC), and cybersecurity standards for Smart Grids.
Smart Grid architecture model (SGAM) will be introduced and topics such as intelligent energy management, smart metering rollout and smart low voltage grids will be introduced. Information assurance will be introduced to help you understand confidentiality of data, integrity and data availability in Smart Grids. Security problems related to advanced metering systems and insider attacks for advanced metering infrastructures will be covered.
Smart Grid Cybersecurity will also introduce the IEEE standards in Smart Grids such as IEEE 802 instructions and ZigBee standards. To provide you a systematic approach for Smart Grid security testing, Smart Grid conformity testing will be introduced and ISO standards will be covered.
This training goes further into the detail of cybersecurity in Smart Grids, high level cybersecurity requirements of Smart Grid systems, SCADA security, energy management for customers and cybersecurity mode level of Smart Grid domains.
This training helps you to grasp all the basic information about market structures of Smart Grids, standard and grid architectures used for Smart Grids. You will also learn about main components of Smart Grids in distribution, transmission and load side. This course firstly introduces you to the power systems, main components of power systems, power electronic based devices, and per unit system.
Smart Grid systems come with security, reliability and economy challenges, energy management systems (EMS), supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems, load forecasting and smart grid operators which will be covered in this training.
Learn about different control modes applied to Smart Grids such as primary/secondary droop control, operation reserve, load managements, state estimation, droop control, tertiary control land peak shaving control of Smart Grids by taking Smart Grid training workshop.
Learn about operation of solar systems, detailed models of PV systems, inverter applications, parameter estimation for solar systems, Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) systems, Proportional Resonance (PR) controllers, and SOC management in solar panels.
This course also introduces you to the main concepts of wind farms, control of doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs), offshore wind farms, HVDC transmission systems and independent active and reactive power control in Smart Grids.
Moreover, learn about general security challenges in Smart Grids such as data loss, cybersecurity issues in Smart Grids and security management in Smart Grids by taking Smart Grid training workshop.
Learn About Renewable Energy Sources in a Smart Grid
- Photovoltaic (PV):
Sun irradiance is absorbed by PV modules, this energy is a Direct Current (DC), and therefore in order to be used for our AC systems, a DC to AC conversion process is needed which is done by an inverter. Energy storage can be supplemented to PV modules in order to store the extra energy and use at the time when there is no sun available.
- Wind Farms:
A wind farm is a group of wind turbines in the same area to generate a fair amount of electricity in a collective manner. The power is generated by flowing wind (air) through wind turbines and generating a mechanical power. Wind farm generators are mostly permanent magnet synchronous generators and recently Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG). Generated mechanical power by wind is used to rotate the rotor and generate a rotating magnetic flux in the generator air gap. Generated flux will then induce a voltage in three phase stator winding and electricity is generated.
Learn About Smart Grid Operation
Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) is heart of the Smart Grid where all the decisions are made, executed and sent to controllable equipment for proper changes. For example, transmission line voltage and current measurements aligned with other measurements from smart grid equipment will be sent to a central control room and decisions are automatically made.
SCADA can make decisions in real time by running optimization algorithms based on received information. Today’s SCADA relies on the internet where the information is shared and processed on LAN networks. However, one should consider the future SCADA will rely on cloud computing with massive power processors to analyze continuous streams of data simultaneously for entire grid.
Learn About Voltage Source Converters
Almost all renewable energy sources rely on Voltage Source Converters (VSCs) where controllability is provided by controlling the modulation index or phase angle of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) pulse generation unit. For example, a wind farm based on DFIG has two converters named Rotor Side Converter (RSC) and Grid Side Converter (GSC) with different controllability. Such a control is illustrated below.
Normally, rotor side converter is in charge of controlling the active and reactive output power from DFIG and grid side converter controls the DC voltage side in common between two converters.
Learn About Smart Grid Security
Due to the fact that a Smart Grid is a huge complex network composed of millions of devices and equipment connected together, it comes with a lot of security concerns and threats. For example, Smart Meters collect massive amount of data and transfer it to the SCADA system, this data includes private information that might be of interest of hackers to use the devices, or recognize when the place is vacant.
Another example is the use of internet protocol (IP) and commercial software and hardware which provide compatibility between various components of Smart Grids. However, IPs are inherently vulnerable to many IP-based network attacks such as Denial of Service (DoS) or IP spoofing.
Therefore, these concerns have led to the point that Smart Grid cybersecurity is a very important matter to be tackled and a lot of standards have been posed by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for Smart Grids.
Learn About Smart Grid Control
As discussed above, smart grid components composed of many voltage source converters (VSC) and each may have different control function. Normally Smart Grids can operate in two main control modes:
- Islanded Mode: Where the connection to main grid is lost and Smart Grid is working independently or it is stand alone. Therefore, the voltage and frequency of Smart Grid will be supported by its own components.
- Grid Connected Mode: In this mode, the Smart Grid is connected to the main grid, and, therefore, there is no need for voltage and frequency control as voltage and frequency are forced by main grid. In this case, Smart Grid control will be devoted to power flow or power sharing control.
- Normally, regardless of connection of the Smart Grid to the grid or islanded mode, Smart Grid control is divided into three different levels:
- Primary Control
- Secondary Control
- Tertiary Control
In islanded mode, primary control is in charge of voltage and frequency of the system and secondary will take care of power sharing among converters. In grid connected mode, the primary is in charge of power sharing and secondary controllers may be dedicated to droop control. Tertiary control in both modes is in charge of providing the references for secondary controllers.
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Smart Grid Training