Price: $1,699.00

Course Number: 4030
Length: 2 Days
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SONET SDH Training Course

This course provides advanced SONET/SDH and DWDM topics.

Who Should Attend

This course is designed to provide a detailed knowledge on SONET/SDH for or technical managers, consultants, communications professionals, software engineers, system engineers, network professionals, and IT professionals


This course provides you with a comprehensive technical details in SONET/SDH and DWDM. Upon completion of this course, the attendees will be able to:

  • Understand Digital Voice and Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH)
  • Understand Transmission Hierarchies
  • Understand Digital Network Synchronization
  • Explore Benefits and Features of SONET/SDH
  • Compare and Contrast STS-1 SPE and AU-3
  • Understand Automatic Protection Switching (APS)
  • Understand Add/Drop Multiplexers (ADMs)
  • Understand Digital Cross-Connects (DCCs)
  • Explore the evolution of Timing and Synchronization
  • Understand SDH and Tributary Multiplexing


Digital Voice and Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH)

  • Digital Network Synchronization
  • Network Timing and Synchronization Concepts
  • PDH Relationships and Network Elements
  • Frequency Justification
  • Limitations of PDH

SONET/SDH: Protocols and Concepts

  • Benefits and Features of SONET/SDH
  • Evolution from PDH to SONET/SDH Plesiochronous Networks
  • Building-Block Signals
  • Unifying SONET and SDH
  • Frame Structures
  • Overhead Functions
  • SONET/SDH Rates and Architectures
  • Details of Pointer Processing
  • Pointer Adjustment, Positive and Negative Justification
  • Pointer Errors

SONET/SDH Path Overhead and Payload Mappings

  • Compare and Contrast STS-1 SPE and AU-3
  • Compare and Contrast STS-3c SPE and AU-4
  • DS-3 Mapping into STS-1 SPE and VC-3
  • E-4 Mapping into STS-3c SPE and VC-4 TUG-3 and TU-3
  • Virtual Tributary / Tributary Unit Group
  • Pointers and Payload Mappings
  • Tandem Connections
  • ATM Cell Mapping
  • Packet over SONET Mapping
  • 10G Ethernet over SONET
  • Limitations of Octet HDLC in High Bit Error Ratio (BER) Environments
  • Simplified Data Link (SDL) Protocol

SONET/SDH Network Elements and Applications

  • Terminal Multiplexers (TMs)
  • Functional Block Diagram of TMs
  • Automatic Protection Switching (APS)
  • APS Details:
  • Linear APS, 1+1, 1:n, 1:1, Bidirectional, and Unidirectional
  • Revertive and Non-Revertive
  • Meaning and Operation of K1 and K2 Bytes
  • Add/Drop Multiplexers (ADMs)
  • Functional Block Diagram of ADMs
  • Types of Rings, Ring and Span APS
  • UPSR and BLSR, MS-USHR, Virtual Rings, SNCP, MS-SP Ring, and MS-DP Ring
  • Limitations of TDM Rings and Methods to Resolve Them
  • Digital Cross-Connects (DCCs)
  • The Role DCCs in Rings, Meshes, and Virtual Rings
  • Next Generation Digital Loop Carrier (NGDLC)
  • Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexers (DSLAMs)
  • SONET/SDH Interfaces on Switches and Routers

Synchronizing SDH and SONET

  • Evolution of Timing and Synchronization
  • Virtual Container
  • Regenerator Section Overhead
  • Multiplex Section Overhead
  • Higher-Order Path Overhead (VC-4/VC-3)
  • Lower-Order Path Overhead (VC-2/VC-1)
  • Anomalies, Defects, Failures, and Alarms
  • Error Performance Monitoring
  • Pointers
  • Payload Pointers
  • Positive Pointer Justification
  • Negative Pointer Justification

SONET/SDH Multiplexing

  • SDH Tributary Multiplexing
  • Tributary Unit Group TU Multiframe
  • TU Payload Pointer Automatic Protection Switching
  • Multiplex Section Protection, K1/K2 Bytes
  • 1+1 Protection 1:N Protection
  • SONET/SDH Telecommunications Standard Primer
  • SONET/SDH Multiplexing
  • SONET/SDH Signal Hierarchy
  • Network Generic Applications
  • Network Generic Applications: Equipment and Uses
  • Cross-Connect Types
  • Trends in Deployment
  • Network Design
  • SDH Timing Compensation
  • SDH Network Management
  • SDH Performance Monitoring
  • SDH Synchronization

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