Space cybersecurity is mostly a matter that originates on Earth.
Much of the world’s critical infrastructure is heavily dependent on space, specifically space-based assets, for its daily functioning.
Essential systems such as communications, air transport, maritime trade, financial services, weather monitoring and defense all rely heavily on space infrastructure, including satellites, ground stations and data links at the national, regional and international level.
This dependence poses a serious, and yet frequently underrecognized, cyberspace security for critical infrastructure providers and policymakers alike.
Besides being an arena of great competition among power nations, private enterprises have invaded space with a plethora of satellites that do everything from providing internet and GPS to tracking hurricanes and providing the backbone to cable and network TV.
Space security experts worry about satellite and space systems because the relative insecurity of satellite systems open them to attack. Cybersecurity personnel warn that the reliance of space-based systems and satellites on civilian infrastructure means greater vulnerability to attack in times of conflict and espionage in times of peace.
The general belief is that during wartime, the greatest risk is to lose operational foresight and be unable to rely on data that comes through space. Also disconcerting is the very real possibility of receiving false or fake information that may result in giving an advantage to the adversary.
The importance of satellites make them a critical part of any nation’s infrastructure and attacking those satellites a strategy that most nations need to consider.
Due to increased challenges in the space cybersecurity realm, there has been an effort afoot by IS4 (International Society of Space and Security Specialists) to educate cybersecurity personnel in space security matters. IS4 (the world’s only space cybersecurity certification authority) is now an international membership association for space and security professionals offering Certified Space Security Specialist Professional (CSSSP) and other space cybersecurity certifications.
In coordination with IS4, Tonex offers Certified Space Security Specialist Professional (CSSSP) in order to train current and future personnel in how to more effectively manage space security issues.
Cybersecurity Principles for Satellite and Space Systems by Tonex
Cybersecurity Principles for Satellite and Space Systems, Training Workshop is a 2-day interactive workshop designed to provide a unique learning experience on space and satellite vulnerabilities that are commonly exploited. Participants will discover techniques and strategies for integrating cybersecurity measures into space and SATCOM systems, networks, products and critical missions from the start.
The rapidly expanding number of satellites transmitting GPS locations, cellphone signals and other sensitive information is creating new opportunities for hackers.
Truth is, cybersecurity isn’t just a terrestrial concern – it’s also become a hot button in space.
That’s because the U.S. and other countries have become increasingly reliant on orbiting satellites for communications and military defense strategies. It’s this dependency on satellites that has cybersecurity experts worried.
The big problem is that satellites can be vulnerable to a number of different types of attacks that can be more difficult to interpret than physical damage. Cybercriminals can, for example, corrupt signals that are going from the ground to the satellite or back.
But it’s not just the signals being exchanged between orbiting satellites and Earth-based stations that are vulnerable. Satellite antennas themselves are prone to cyberattacks according to cybersecurity professionals.
A report claims that a number of popular satellite communication systems are vulnerable to the cyberattacks, which could also leak information and hack connected devices, leading the head researcher of this report to call the consequences of these vulnerabilities “shocking.”
Nearly 5,000 satellites are currently in orbit around the Earth. The U.S. relies on many of them for everything from communications and emergency warnings to GPS coordinates and defense information.
Damage inflicted in the satellite sector could have a ripple effect, leading to heavy financial losses and/or comprised data in other areas. Satellites are part of the extended cyber ecosystem for most organizations, but organizations rarely have direct control over satellite cybersecurity.
Cyberattacks are increasing at an exponential rate, and SATCOM systems and satellite communications are becoming a prime target. Cybersecurity and Satellite Systems Training addresses all the key areas of satellite systems, including the management of the space and ground segments, Tracking, Telemetry and Command (TT&C) functions, uplink and downlink transmissions and network performance.
Cybersecurity and Satellite Systems Course is a knowledge-level course designed to provide a knowledge base of Cybersecurity applied to SATCOM. Lessons and exercises taught by subject matter experts will expand the student’s understanding of the space and radio frequency environments, capabilities and limitations of military and commercial SATCOM systems, threats to all segments of SATCOM, planning processes, cybersecurity attacks and mitigation techniques.
Upon completion of this course, the participants will learn how to:
- Examine SATCOM networks, architecture, network attacks, and their impact on devices
- Develop a foundation knowledge of SATCOM cybersecurity threats and strategies for mitigating risk
- View the SATCOM system from the perspective of the “hacker”
- Identify exploitation and exploring how tools are used to gain entry into SATCOM systems and their secure environments.
- Develop skills for analyzing and addressing vulnerabilities in SATCOM systems and products with embedded systems and software
- Analyze SATCOM system embedded hardware and firmware to detect vulnerabilities and opportunities for improving security
- Mitigate threats by implementing effective and proven countermeasures
- Reduce risk to acceptable levels to ensure successful SATCOM operations
Introduction to SATCOM Networks and Systems
- SATCOM 101
- Satellite Communications Overview
- Satellite Orbits and Payloads
- Satellite Constellations
- Spectrum and Bands
- Channels and Carriers
- Satellite Access Techniques
- Satellite Coverage
- Principles of Spot Beams
- Coverage and Communication Analysis
- Common Types of Satellites
SATCOM Network and System Architecture
- SATCOM Architectural Components
- Spacecraft, Repeater, Transponders and Antennas
- Spacecraft Mission and Bus Subsystems
- Earth Stations and Network Technology
- Tracking, Telemetry and Command (TT&C)
- Uplink and Downlink Transmissions
- Launch Vehicles and Services
- Satellite Operations and Organization
- Space Segment
- Control Segment
- User Segment
- Architectures Defined by Function
- SATCOM System Functions
- Tracking Telemetry & Command (TT&C)
- Data Collection
- Data Relay
- Satellite Design
- Onboard Processing
- Platforms for Terminal (Chips, OS, MMI, etc)
- Transmission (coding, modulations, etc)
- Types of antennas and design
- Capabilities and limitations
- Product development process
- Autonomous Satellite Control
- Spacecraft Operations
- Spacecraft Navigation
- Network Management
- Network Operations Center (NOC)
Satellite Communications Technology Principles
- Satellite communication systems
- Satellite constellations
- Spot beams
- Radio Link
- Spectrum issues
- Propagation characteristics
- Analog and digital Modulation
- Digital modulation and Coding
- Satellite RF Link
- Multiple access principles
- Earth Stations
- Satellite system performance
- System tradeoffs
- Transponder System Design and Architecture
- System tradeoffs
- Communications Payload Performance Management
- Earth station and other equipment
- Multiple Access Techniques
- Access methods
- SCPC, TDMA, TDM, DAMA, CDMA, OFDM, DVB
- Single channel per carrier (SCPC)
- Propagation Interference and Regulation
- Payload Engineering
- Spacecraft Engineering and Operations
SATCOM Networks and System Cybersecurity
- SATCOM Systems Attacks
- Uniquely Network Concerns
- Reliability and Security
- Role of Obscurity
- Threat Assessment
- Attackers and Assets
- Attack Surface
- Attack Trees
- Security Policy
- SATCOM System Vulnerabilities
SATCOM System Vulnerability Analysis
- SATCOM System and Network Attacks
- Exploiting SATCOM Systems and Devices
- The Stages of System Exploitation
- Initial Reconnaissance
- Firmware Unpacking and Modification
- Modification and Creation of new firmware
- Hacking/exploitation techniques, tools and entry points
- Defensive technologies
Case Study and Workshop: Cybersecurity Attacks and Best Mitigation Practices for SATCOM Systems
- Cybersecurity Analysis of SATCOM Systems
- Design Process
- System CONOPS
- Mission objectives
- Test and Evaluation
- Threat Analysis
- System Design and Security Requirements
- System Implementation Security
- Attack surface
- Physical Attack Surface
- SATCOM software, hardware and firmware analysis
- Attack types against SATCOM and wireless communications protocols, buses, terminals, embedded operating systems, applications
- Automated Threat Modeling
- Threat Modeling
- Threat Modeling Methodologies
- Threat Modeling Software
- Threat Modeling Tools
- Mitigation approaches and techniques
- Hacking/exploitation techniques, tools, and entry points
- Trust hardware and software components
- Risk Assessment
- Control Plan
Cybersecurity Principles for Satellite and Space Systems