Length: 2 Days
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Cybersecurity Principles for Satellite and Space Systems

Cybersecurity Principles for Satellite and Space Systems is a 2-day course where participants examine SATCOM networks, architecture, network attacks, and their impact on devices.

Participants also develop a foundation knowledge of SATCOM cybersecurity threats and strategies for mitigating risk as well as view the SATCOM system from the perspective of the “hacker.”

Space Electrical Engineering Training by Tonex

Space systems, ranging from satellites to mission control centers, are frequently the target of cyberattacks.

Despite the space industry’s technical sophistication, their cybersecurity efforts have lagged behind that of other high–technology sectors. Evidenced by the prevalence of vulnerabilities and attack vectors that go unchecked, space systems ranging from CubeSats to sophisticated rovers have considerable cybersecurity challenges.

According to the Aerospace Corporation, there are several segments of space infrastructure that need to be hardened against cyber-attack:

  • Spacecraft could be vulnerable to command intrusions such as giving bad instructions to destroy or manipulate basic controls
  • Malware could be used to infect systems on the ground like satellite control centers
  • Links between the two and spacecraft could be spoofed such as disguising communication from an untrusted source as a trusted one

The Pentagon has said that the military is prioritizing space cybersecurity. The big fear is that cybercriminals have the skillset to deny satellite communications or throw a satellite out of its orbit, even manipulate it to make it look like an accident or a collision with something else given the increasingly crowded nature of space.

While the military used to rely on an “air gap” to ensure a secure environment, the number of parties and systems involved in creating and operating space systems introduces vulnerabilities.

Cybersecurity Principles for Satellite and Space Systems by Tonex

Cybersecurity Principles for Satellite and Space Systems, Training Workshop is a 2-day interactive workshop designed to provide a unique learning experience on space and satellite vulnerabilities that are commonly exploited. Participants will discover techniques and strategies for integrating cybersecurity measures into space and SATCOM systems, networks, products and critical missions from the start.

The rapidly expanding number of satellites transmitting GPS locations, cellphone signals and other sensitive information is creating new opportunities for hackers.

Truth is, cybersecurity isn’t just a terrestrial concern – it’s also become a hot button in space.

That’s because the U.S. and other countries have become increasingly reliant on orbiting satellites for communications and military defense strategies.

It’s this dependency on satellites that has cybersecurity experts worried.

The big problem is that satellites can be vulnerable to a number of different types of attacks that can be more difficult to interpret than physical damage. Cybercriminals can, for example, corrupt signals that are going from the ground to the satellite or back.

But it’s not just the signals being exchanged between orbiting satellites and Earth-based stations that are vulnerable. Satellite antennas themselves are prone to cyberattacks according to cybersecurity professionals.

A report claims that  a number of popular satellite communication systems are vulnerable to the cyberattacks, which could also leak information and hack connected devices, leading the head researcher of this report to call the consequences of these vulnerabilities “shocking.”

Nearly 5,000 satellites are currently in orbit around the Earth. The U.S. relies on many of them for everything from communications and emergency warnings to GPS coordinates and defense information.

Damage inflicted in the satellite sector could have a ripple effect, leading to heavy financial losses and/or comprised data in other areas. Satellites are part of the extended cyber ecosystem for most organizations, but organizations rarely have direct control over satellite cybersecurity.

Cyberattacks are increasing at an exponential rate, and SATCOM systems and satellite communications are becoming a prime target. Cybersecurity and Satellite Systems Training addresses all the key areas of satellite systems, including the management of the space and ground segments, Tracking, Telemetry and Command (TT&C) functions, uplink and downlink transmissions and network performance.

Cybersecurity and Satellite Systems Course is a knowledge-level course designed to provide a knowledge base of Cybersecurity applied to SATCOM. Lessons and exercises taught by subject matter experts will expand the student’s understanding of the space and radio frequency environments, capabilities and limitations of military and commercial SATCOM systems, threats to all segments of SATCOM, planning processes, cybersecurity attacks and mitigation techniques.

Learning Objectives

GPS or Weather Satellite orbiting Earth

Upon completion of this course, the participants will learn how to:

  • Examine SATCOM networks, architecture, network attacks, and their impact on devices
  • Develop a foundation knowledge of SATCOM cybersecurity threats and strategies for mitigating risk
  • View the SATCOM system from the perspective of the “hacker”
  • Identify exploitation and exploring how tools are used to gain entry into SATCOM systems and their secure environments.
  • Develop skills for analyzing and addressing vulnerabilities in SATCOM systems and products with embedded systems and software
  • Analyze SATCOM system embedded hardware and firmware to detect vulnerabilities and opportunities for improving security
  • Mitigate threats by implementing effective and proven countermeasures
  • Reduce risk to acceptable levels to ensure successful SATCOM operations

Course Content

Introduction to SATCOM Networks and Systems

  • SATCOM 101
  • Satellite Communications Overview
  • Satellite Orbits and Payloads
  • Satellite Constellations
  • Spectrum and Bands
  • Channels and Carriers
  • Channelization
  • Satellite Access Techniques
  • Satellite Coverage
  • Principles of Spot Beams
  • Coverage and Communication Analysis
  • Common Types of Satellites

SATCOM Network and System Architecture

  • SATCOM Architectural Components
  • Spacecraft, Repeater, Transponders and Antennas
  • Spacecraft Mission and Bus Subsystems
  • Earth Stations and Network Technology
  • Tracking, Telemetry and Command (TT&C)
  • Uplink and Downlink Transmissions
  • Launch Vehicles and Services
  • Satellite Operations and Organization
  • Space Segment
  • Control Segment
  • User Segment
  • Architectures Defined by Function
  • SATCOM System Functions
  • Tracking Telemetry & Command (TT&C)
  • Data Collection
  • Data Relay
  • Satellite Design
  • Onboard Processing
  • Platforms for Terminal (Chips, OS, MMI, etc)
  • Transmission (coding, modulations, etc)
  • Types of antennas and design
  • Capabilities and limitations
  • Product development process
  • Autonomous Satellite Control
  • Spacecraft Operations
  • Spacecraft Navigation
  • Network Management
  • Network Operations Center (NOC)

Satellite Communications Technology Principles

  • Satellite communication systems
  • Satellite constellations
  • Spot beams
  • Radio Link
  • Spectrum issues
  • Propagation characteristics
  • Analog and digital Modulation
  • Digital modulation and Coding
  • Satellite RF Link
  • Multiple access principles
  • Earth Stations
  • Antennas
  • Satellite system performance
  • System tradeoffs
  • Transponder System Design and Architecture
  • System tradeoffs
  • Communications Payload Performance Management
  • Earth station and other equipment
  • Multiple Access Techniques
  • Access methods
  • Single channel per carrier (SCPC)
  • Propagation Interference and Regulation
  • Payload Engineering
  • Spacecraft Engineering and Operations

SATCOM Networks and System Cybersecurity

  • SATCOM Systems Attacks
  • Uniquely Network Concerns
  • Reliability and Security
  • Role of Obscurity
  • Threat Assessment
  • Attackers and Assets
  • Attack Surface
  • Attack Trees
  • Security Policy
  • SATCOM System Vulnerabilities

SATCOM System Vulnerability Analysis

  • SATCOM System and Network Attacks
  • Exploiting SATCOM Systems and Devices
  • The Stages of System Exploitation
  • Initial Reconnaissance
  • Exploitation
  • Firmware Unpacking and Modification
  • Detecting
  • Extracting
  • Analysis
  • Modification and Creation of new firmware
  • Hacking/exploitation techniques, tools and entry points
  • Defensive technologies

Case Study and Workshop: Cybersecurity Attacks and Best Mitigation Practices for SATCOM Systems

  • Cybersecurity Analysis of SATCOM Systems
  • Design Process
  • System CONOPS
  • Mission objectives
  • Test and Evaluation
  • Threat Analysis
  • System Design and Security Requirements
  • System Implementation Security
  • Attack surface
  • Physical Attack Surface
  • SATCOM software, hardware and firmware analysis
  • Attack types against SATCOM and wireless communications protocols, buses, terminals, embedded operating systems, applications
  • Automated Threat Modeling
  • Threat Modeling
  • Threat Modeling Methodologies
  • Threat Modeling Software
  • Threat Modeling Tools
  • Mitigation approaches and techniques
  • Hacking/exploitation techniques, tools, and entry points
  • Trust hardware and software components
  • Risk Assessment
  • Control Plan
  • Mitigation

Cybersecurity Principles for Satellite and Space Systems

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