Length: 3 Days
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Fundamentals of Battery Energy Storage System (BESS)

Fundamentals of Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) is a 3-day course that evaluates the costs and investment benefits of using a BESS system.

Participants will also learn best practices for energy storage engineering and installation.

Battery energy storage systems (BESS) are among the most widespread and accepted solutions for residential, commercial, and industrial applications.

Battery energy storage systems power everything from our phones to cars, houses, and even retail and industrial facilities. Batteries can store electricity by converting it into stored chemical energy, which is converted back to electricity as needed.

Benefits of battery energy storage include:

  • Creates flexibility for the electric grid as outages become increasingly costly by preventing extended downtime and providing backup power when needed
  • Boosts the quality and reliability of energy delivery by providing temporary continuity during outages
  • Injects and extracts energy according to changes in load in real time
  • Reduces environmental impact through improved energy efficiency, reduced carbon emissions, and a new opportunity for renewables
  • It can significantly lower energy costs by reducing fossil fuel use and lost revenue from outages

From 2020 to 2021, the energy storage market doubled in size, and global storage capacity is expected to increase by 56% in the next five years. 

Energy analysts believe that all of this energy storage capacity will have wide-reaching effects in terms of energy efficiency and use, especially for site operators and service providers.

Many energy professionals feel that battery energy storage is especially effective in combination with solar energy. The reasoning is this:

Solar energy storage mitigates the intermittent nature of renewable power and guarantees a steady supply of electricity.

Generally speaking, batteries for a home or business solar energy system include a built-in inverter to change the DC current generated by solar panels into the AC current needed to power appliances or equipment.

Consequently, a solar battery storage works with an energy management systemthat manages the charge and discharge cycles based on real-time needs and availability.

Fundamentals of Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) Course by Tonex

Fundamentals of Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) is a 3-day training course. A Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) is a technology developed for storing electric charge by using specially developed batteries.

Battery storage is a technology that enables power system operators and utilities to store energy for later use. A BESS is an electrochemical device that charges (or collects energy) from the grid or a power plant and then discharges that energy at a later time to provide electricity or other grid services when needed.

Fundamentals of Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) training should be suitable for engineers, managers, supervisors as well as professional and technical personnel.


Fundamentals of Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) training is suitable for engineers, managers, supervisors, technicians, installers, O&M as well as other professional and technical personnel.

Course Outline

Overview of Battery Energy Storage System (BESS)

  • ESS (Energy Storage System)
  • Classification of energy storage technologies
  • Parameters
  • Unit Parameters
  • Main Electrical Parameters
  • Tests and testing methods
  • Load Management (Energy Demand Management)
  • Energy Time-Shift (Arbitrage)
  • Backup Power
  • Black-Start Capability
  • Frequency Control
  • Renewable Energy Integration
  • Transmission and Distribution (T&D) Deferral
  • Microgrids

Battery Chemistry Types

  • Mechanical Storage
  • Pumped Hydro Storage (PHS)
  • Gravity Storage Technologies
  • Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES)
  • Flywheel Energy Storage (FES)
  • Electrochemical storage
  • Lead–Acid (PbA) Battery
  • Nickel–Cadmium (Ni–Cd) Battery
  • Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Battery
  • Sodium–Sulfur (Na–S) Battery
  • Redox Flow Battery (RFB)
  • Sodium-sulfur batteries (NAS)
  • Flow batteries
  • Zn-air batteries
  • Supercapacitors
  • Hydrogen Storage Technologies (Power-to-Gas)

Key Characteristics of Battery Storage Systems

  • Rated power capacity
  • Energy capacity
  • Storage duration
  • Cycle life/lifetime .
  • Self-discharge
  • State of charge
  • Round-trip efficiency

Why BESS over other Storage Technologies

  • BESS advantage over other storage technologies
  • Footprint and no restrictions on geographical locations
  • Pumped hydro storage (PHS) and Compressed air energy storage (CAES)
  • Water and siting-related restrictions and transmission constraints
  • Energy and power densities
  • Calculating the cost and revenue generated by the applications for a BESS
  • Evaluating the investment and building

BESS System Capabilities

  • Common BESS Terminology
  • Capacity [Ah]
  • Nominal Energy [Wh]
  • Power [W]
  • Specific Energy [Wh/kg]
  • C Rate
  • Cycle
  • Cycle Life
  • Depth of Discharge (DoD)
  • State-of-charge (SoC, %)
  • Coulombic efficiency
  • Specific Energy [Wh/kg]
  • Capacity [Ah]
  • Nominal Energy [Wh]
  • Five Categories of Energy Storage Applications
  • Electric Supply
  • Ancillary Services
  • Grid System
  • End User/Utility Customer
  • Grid and Renewable Integration
  • Electric Energy Time-Shift
  • Load Following
  • Renewables Energy Time-Shift
  • Renewables Capacity Firming

BESS Architecture

  • Components of a Battery Energy Storage System (BESS)
  • Energy Storage System Components
  • Grid Connection for Utility-Scale BESS Projects
  • Grid Storage Solution (GSS)
  • Direct current (dc) system
  • Power conversion system (PCS)
  • BMS, SSC, and a grid connection
  • Stationary battery energy storage system (BESS)
  • Mobile BESS
  • Carrier of BESS
  • Lead acid battery
  • Lithium-ion battery
  • Flow battery
  • Sodium-sulfur battery
  • BESS used in electric power systems (EPS)
  • Alternatives for connection (including DR interconnection)
  • Design, operation, and maintenance of stationary or mobile BESS used in EPS
  • Fire suppression system
  • Fire detection system
  • HVAC system
  • Batteries
  • Inverters
  • Transformers
  • MV interconnection
  • The Balance Of System (BOS)
  • Equipment required to handle the energy exchange
  • Inverters, cable, switchgear, etc.

Operational Case Studies

Battery Energy Storage System Implementation

  • Comparison of Operational Characteristics of Energy Storage System Applications
  • Frequency Regulation
  • Renewable Energy Integration
  • Microgrids Case Study
  • Case Study of Energy Storage System Operation Project
  • Case Study of a Wind Power plus Energy Storage System Project
  • Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) and Battery Management System (BMS) for Grid-Scale Applications

Grid Applications of Battery Energy Storage Systems

  • Scoping of BESS Use Cases
  • General Grid Applications of BESS
  • Round-Trip Efficiency
  • Response Time
  • Lifetime and Cycling
  • Frequency Regulation
  • Peak Shaving and Load Leveling

Management and Controls (on site & remote)

  • Timely operation and maintenance of the facility
  • Methods to minimize loss of energy yield, damage to property, safety concerns, and disruption of electric power supply
  • Function Definition
  • Operation Monitoring system management
  • Operation status check and repair
  • Management and reporting
  • Facility infrastructure (communications and control, environmental control, grid interconnection, etc.)
  • Remote monitoring
  • Operation procedures
  • Operational parameters
  • Alarms and warnings
  • Remote fault location

BESS Placement

  • Power losses minimization
  • Power line voltage limits

SCADA and Software Tools

  • SCADA functionalities
  • BMS and EMS
  • Human interfaces and function
  • Predictive tools

Challenges and Risks

  • Battery Safety
  • Battery Reuse and Recycling
  • Recycling Process
  • Policy Recommendations
  • Frequency Regulation
  • Distribution Grids
  • Transmission Grids
  • Peak Shaving and Load Leveling
  • Microgrids

Diagnostic Procedures

  • Fault detection (i.e. battery module)
  • Alarms/warnings/diagnosis/ corrective: troubleshooting guides for more common errors

Electrical Maneuvers

  • Energization
  • De-energization
  • Isolation
  • Grounding
  • LOTO procedures

Maintenance and Corrective Actions

  • Normal maintenance methods and procedures
  • Repairs and replacement
  • Equipment calibration
  • Component and equipment-wise checks and repair, repair work (following
  • expiration of EPC warranty period), verification of repairs, documentation
  • Environmental management Vegetation abatement, waste and garbage dumping, battery disposal
  • Safety management Protection of the ESS facility against criminal
  • Vandalism, theft, and trespassing
  • Transmission-line management
  • Transmission-line check and repair work
  • Spare parts Ample storage of on-site spares with suitable safeguards
  • availability agreement
  • BESS (batteries, power converters, etc.)


  • Special tests
  • Special tools
  • Recycling and waste management
  • Storage of battery modules

Optional Workshops

Best Practices

  • Best practices for Energy Storage Engineering and Installation
  • Requirements for comparing offers between different manufacturers (i.e. Efficiency, BOL/EOL, self-discharge rate, cycling, etc.)
  • Battery Energy Storage System Selection
  • Battery modules
  • thermal management.
  • Power conversion system (PCS)
  • Battery management system (BMS),
  • voltage, temperature, fire warning and state of charge (SOC) of the battery
  • Energy management system (EMS)
  • BESS System Components:
  • Cells, Modules and Racks
  • Battery Management System (BMS)
  • Monitoring and safety components
  • Balance of System (BOS) equipment

Root Cause Analysis  

  • Define problem statement in a clear way without any ambiguity
  • Use proper tools and resources to gather data
  • Describe root cause analysis step by step
  • Use brainstorming methods to identify all potential causes
  • Monitor the implemented solution(s) to evaluate its effectiveness
  • Develop an effective action plan
  • Develop an effective and sufficient preventive plan
  • Determine common limitations of root cause analysis and find ways to remove those barriers
  • Construct “whys” and “hows” trees
  • Think laterally to explore all the causes of a problem
  • Form an effective work environment

Guidelines For Developing Bess Technical Standards

  • System Sizing and Selection
  • Sizing
  • Selection
  • Functional System Performance
  • Characteristics of Grid-Connected ESSs
  • Communication Interface
  • Performance Assessments
  • Installation Phase
  • Commissioning Phase
  • Performance Monitoring Phase

Overview of BESS Codes and Technical Standards

  • NFPA 855
  • National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 855-2023: Standard for The Installation of Stationary Energy Storage Systems.
  • National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 69-2024: Standard on Explosion Prevention Systems.
  • National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 68-2023: Standard on Explosion Protection by Deflagration Venting.
  • UL 9540A and UL9540
  • UL 1642
  • UL 1973
  • UL 1741
  • UL 2596
  • UL 62109-1
  • UL 1741, “Standard for Static Inverters and Charge, Converters, Controllers and Interconnection System Equipment for Use with Distributed Energy Resources”
  • UL 62109-1 “Safety of power converters for use in photovoltaic power systems – Part 1: General requirements”
  • Battery cell: UL 1642 “Standard for Lithium Batteries”
  • Battery module: UL 1973 “Batteries for Use in Light Electric Rail Applications and Stationary Applications”
  • Battery system: UL 9540 “Energy Storage Systems and Equipment” , UL 9540A “Test Method for Evaluating Thermal Runaway Fire Propagation in Battery Energy Storage Systems”
  • IEC 62933
  • IEC 62619
  • IEC 63056
  • NERC Interconnection Standards
  • UN 38.3 “Certification for Lithium Batteries” (Transportation)
  • American National Standards Institute (ANSI) C12.1 (electricity metering)
  • American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE)-7 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures
  • IEEE 2030.2, Guide for the Interoperability of Energy Storage Systems Integrated with the Electric Power Infrastructure
  • NFPA 855, “Standard for the Installation of Stationary Energy Storage Systems”
  • NFPA 855 (Standard for the Installation of Stationary Energy Storage Systems): Provides the minimum requirements for mitigating the hazards associated with BESS.
  • Grid interconnection standards, as applicable to the project as a whole:
  • Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 1547
  • IEEE 2030.2, Guide for the Interoperability of Energy Storage Systems Integrated with the Electric Power Infrastructure
  • ANSI Z535 (Standards for Safety Signs and Colors): Provides the specifications and requirements to establish uniformity of safety color coding, environmental/facility safety signs and communicating safety symbols.
  • IEEE 693 (Recommended Practice for Seismic Design of Substations): Provides seismic design recommendations for substations, including qualification of different equipment types.
  • IEEE 1578 (Recommended Practice for Stationary Battery Electrolyte Spill Containment and Management): Provides descriptions of products, methods, and procedures relating to stationary batteries, battery electrolyte spill mechanisms, electrolyte containment and control methodologies, and firefighting considerations.
  • NFPA 13 (Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems): Addresses sprinkler system design approaches, system installation, and component options to prevent fire deaths and property loss.
  • NFPA 69 (Standard on Explosion Prevention Systems): Provides requirements for installing systems for the prevention and control of explosions in enclosures that contain flammable concentrations of flammable gases, vapors, mists, dusts, or hybrid mixtures.
  • NFPA 68 (Standard on Explosion Protection by Deflagration Venting): Addresses the installation and use of devices and systems that vent the combustion gases and pressures resulting from a deflagration within an enclosure, so that structural and mechanical damage is minimized.
  • NFPA 70 (National Electrical Code (NEC)): Provides the benchmark for safe electrical design, installation, and inspection to protect people and property from electrical hazards.
  • NFPA 704 (Standard System for the Identification of the Hazards of Materials for Emergency Response): Presents a simple, readily recognized, and easily understood system of markings (commonly referred to as the “NFPA hazard diamond”) that provides an immediate general sense of the hazards of a material and the severity of these hazards as they relate to emergency response.
  • NFPA 780 (Standard for the Installation of Lightning Protection Systems): Provides lightning protection system installation requirements in buildings to safeguard people and property from fire risk and related hazards associated with lightning exposure.
  • UL 1973 (Standard for Batteries for Use in Stationary, Vehicle Auxiliary Power and Light Electric Rail (LER) Applications): Provides requirements for battery systems as defined by this standard for use as energy storage for stationary applications such as for PV, wind turbine storage or for UPS, etc. applications.
  • UL 1642 (Standard for Lithium Batteries): Provides requirements for primary, e., non-rechargeable, and secondary, i.e., rechargeable, lithium batteries for use as power sources in products.
  • UL 1741 (Standard for Inverters, Converters, Controllers and Interconnection System Equipment for Use with Distributed Energy Resources): Provides requirements for inverters, converters, charge controllers, and interconnection system equipment intended for use in standalone (not grid connected) or utility-interactive (grid-connected) power systems.
  • UL 9540 (Standard for Energy Storage Systems and Equipment): Provides requirements for energy storage systems that are intended to receive electric energy and then store the energy in some form so that the energy storage system can provide electrical energy to loads or to the local/area electric power system (EPS) up to the utility grid when needed.
  • UL 62109 (Standard for Safety of Power Converters for Use in Photovoltaic Power Systems): Provides requirements for the design and manufacture of power conversion efficiency (PCE) for protection against electric shock, energy, fire, mechanical, and other hazards.

Fundamentals of Battery Energy Storage System (BESS)

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