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Fundamentals of Infrared (IR) Technology

Infrared technology has been an invaluable tool for astronomers.

First discovered in the early 19th century, infrared technology is showing up in an increasingly wide range of innovative consumer applications.

Today’s powerful infrared technology is being used in a variety of novel ways, such as for autonomous vehicles and smart buildings, essentially adding value to these advanced technological systems.

Infrared technology can be integrated into existing systems to add new technical capabilities. And, as production volumes increase, costs are expected to continue to come down, making the technology even more accessible for an even wider range of uses.

Infrared heat technology for industrial processes is receiving a lot of well-deserved attention from businesses. Industrial heat processes provide energy at the push of a button, at precisely the right time and to the correct place.

Infrared heat technology works by transmitting electromagnetic waves which generate heat within the product.

Part of the electromagnetic radiation is absorbed in the material, another portion is reflected and the rest penetrates the materials. Only the absorbed portion contributes to heating.

Each material has its own absorption spectrum, the range in which the electromagnetic radiation is best absorbed.

When the emission spectrum of an infrared emitter is optimally adjusted to a material’s absorption spectrum, the material is heated much faster and much more efficiently.

The uses of infrared technology are increasing in both military and non-military arenas.

People are often surprised to learn that infrared technology is also used in most remote controls by sending pulses of infrared, spelling out codes that an electronic device will recognize. Besides TV remotes, infrared technology is also important for the functioning of DVD players projectors, etc.

Infrared technology has also stepped to the forefront as a conduit for sending signals through optic cables, particularly when using standard silica fibers. Fiber optic cables are commonly used to transmit audio to sound systems and for high-speed internet connections.

In recent years, astronomers have been particularly pleased by how infrared technology has benefited astronomy. Taking pictures of the universe in infrared has led to remarkable  discoveries – discoveries that have even altered our perceptions of the universe.

Perhaps the most exciting part of infrared technology is its potential. Infrared communication is massive bandwidth which is available for use, but has not been exploited to its full extent.

Fundamentals of Infrared (IR) Technology Course by Tonex

Fundamentals of Infrared (IR) Technology  provides a basic understanding of the physical background and engineering considerations required for the design of IR systems, examining all components and combining them into imaging, sensor and surveillance systems. Participants will learn about state-of-the-art optical systems, lightweight mirrors and adaptive optics, planar-hybrid and Z-technology focal planes, design of a ground-based IR astronomical telescope,  laser-radar systems.

Infrared (IR) thermal imaging, thermography, IR detector design, electronics, and computer science. Topics such IR radiation, radiometry, blackbody radiation, emissivity and optical material properties in IR.

Blackbody Radiation and basic laws reveals the quantitative changes of infrared thermal radiation in relation to temperature and wavelength.  Concretely speaking, the following four basic laws can be generalized:

  • Spectrum distribution law of radiation—Planck’s radiation law
  • Movement law of the radiation spectrum—Wien’s displacement law
  • Law of change of radiation power with changing temperature—Stefan–Boltzmann law
  • Spatial distribution law of radiation—Lambert’s cosine law.

Target Audience:

The intended audience for this training are professionals who want to know more about  Infrared technology and system. Engineers, scientists, testers, system engineers and managers interested in procedures, methods, applications and techniques associated with  infrared , sensor system analysis design, testing, evaluation and analysis.

Learning Objectives

Upon completion of Infrared Training Crash Course, the attendees will:

  • Learn the underlying principles behind Infrared and associated technologies
  • Learn basics of electro-optic and Infrared sensors and the theory of operation
  • Explain the basis and operation of Infrared based sensor systems and their data processors
  • Explore the importance of Infrared technology and system applications
  • Review and list the underlying principles of Infrared systems
  • List the major components and technologies of Infrared sensor systems.
  • Explain basics of Infrared sensor modeling, simulation, testing and evaluation processes
  • Derive requirements for Infrared system models, ISR applications, Infrared Sensors, weapons, Electronic Warfare (EW) Systems and data fusion
  • List major system design and performance parameters and issues
  • Explain the verification and validation process for sensors, applications and data processors
  • Evaluate and select the best Infrared sensor solutions for any given operational scenario
  • List the key impact of environmental processes affecting Infrared system operation
  • Explain technology and operational trends in Infrared systems
  • Appreciate the likely future advances in the Infrared technologies

Course Modules

The Electromagnetic Spectrum

  • Microwave, Infrared, Visible Light, X-Ray and UV
  • The Difference Between Infrared, Visible Light and UV
  • Infrared (IR) Radiation
  • The Wave Equation
  • Laws of Radiation

Infrared Bands

  • Division name
  • Wavelength Ranges
  • Near-infrared
  • Short Wavelength Infrared (SWIR)
  • Medium Wavelength Infrared (MWIR)
  • Long Wavelength Infrared (LWIR).
  • Far Infrared

Electro-optical Sensor Types

  • Photoconductive devices
  • Photovoltaics,
  • Photodiodes
  • Phototransistors
  • Optical Switches

Infrared Applications and Use Cases

  • Infrared Sensing
  • Infrared Detection
  • Thermal Imaging
  • Electro-Optical/Infrared (EO/IR) Systems
  • infrared (IR) systems (e.g., forward-looking infrared [FLIR], IR line scanners)

Physics behind Infrared Sensors

  • Planck’s radiation law: Every object at a temperature T not equal to 0 K emits radiation
  • Stephan Boltzmann Law: The total energy emitted at all wavelengths by a black body is related to the absolute temperature
  • Wein’s Displacement Law: Objects of different temperature emit spectra that peak at different wavelengths
  • Quantum Mechanics
  • Blackbody Radiation
  • Photoelectric Effect

Infrared Theory of Operation

  • Key concepts behind infrared
  • Infrared vs. Light vs. Microwave
  • Infrared Radiometry
  • Principles behind Infrared sources
  • Atmospherics effect
  • Fundamentals of Optics
  • Detectors and focal planes
  • Starers versus scanners
  • Thermal images
  • Infrared signal processing

Infrared Systems Survey

  • Infrared Systems
  • Infrared Sensor and System Engineering and High-Level Design/Architecture
  • Infrared Sensor ConOps, Requirements, and System Design Principals
  • Infrared Sensor Evaluation
  • Infrared Testing

Infrared Simulation and Modelling

  • Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) collection systems
  • Multi-sensor, multi-mode systems
  • Electro-Optical (EO) Full-Motion Video (FMV)
  • Infrared (IR) FMV
  • Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)
  • Hyper-Spectral Imaging (HSI) sensors,
  • Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) and Electronics Intelligence (ELINT) sensors
  • EO/IR Signal Processing
  • Non-Imaging EO/IR Capabilities
  • IR Detectors (Compare)
  • Link budget (equivalent radar range equation, target size, detection range, RCS)
  • Optical Detectors (Lens, IFOV)



Fundamentals of Infrared Technology

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