Length: 4 Days
Fundamentals of Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) Signals Certificate
Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) signals is now considered an essential tactical requirement and is being specified by considerable military personnel using radar today.
LPI radar has specific design features that render it difficult to detect.
LPI is the property of an emitter that, because of its low power, wide bandwidth, frequency variability, or other design attributes, makes it difficult to be detected or identified utilizing passive intercept receiver devices.
The objective of LPI radars is to detect targets at longer ranges than intercept receivers to detect the radar. In other words, the whole point of an LPI radar is “To See and Not Be Seen,” or “To Detect and Not Be Detected.”
Consequently, the DoD advocates the usage of LPI radars under tight “EMCON” conditions to provide an advantage in establishing a recognized maritime picture to the user side.
Examining the technical aspects, low probability of intercept radar that uses frequency hopping techniques changes the transmitting frequency in time over a wide bandwidth in order to prevent an intercept receiver from intercepting the waveform.
The frequency slots used are chosen from a frequency hopping sequence, and it is this unknown sequence that gives the radar the advantage over the intercept receiver in terms of processing gain. The frequency sequence appears random to the intercept receiver, and so the possibility of it following the changes in frequency is remote.
LPI measures include:
- Power management and high duty cycle, meaning the transmitter is on most of the time (long integration times)
- Wide bandwidth (or Ultra-wideband)
- Frequency Agility, and frequency selection
- Advanced/irregular scan patterns
- Coded pulses (coherent detection)
- High processing gain
- Low sidelobe antennas
In the past, many types of radar were designed to transmit short-duration pulses having relatively high peak power, to reduce all the propagation losses of the electromagnetic waves, and, at the same time, to guarantee a straightforward recovery of the reflected wave from the target in clutter.
LPI signals can be realized using wide operational bandwidth, frequency agility, proper power management, antenna sidelobe reduction, and advanced scan patterns.
Fundamentals of Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) Signals Certificate; NATURE, IDENTIFICATION, AND EXPLOITATION STRATEGIES
Fundamentals of Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) Signals Certificate is a 4-day training course and will provide the foundation for the basic understanding of the following principals:
- Basic waveform review
- What a Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) signal is and what it is not
- How LPI signals are generated
- The purpose of LPI signals
- LPI signal identification
- Barriers to LPI signal identification
- Capture strategies
- Required waveform capture equipment
- Capture equipment overview
- Practical lab exercises
This course is designed for the working professional who is actively engaged in the waveform capture and analysis domain (Subject Matter Expert), as well as the junior engineer who wishes to become more familiar with the basic understanding of LPI principals. The target audience can be drawn from a wide range of industries and agencies, which could be in the private, DoD, law enforcement or government sectors. There is an assumption that the target audience will possess a fundamental knowledge of waveform structure and basic electromagnetic theory, but this curriculum will provide ample opportunities to focus on fundamentals and refresher topics as well. The course will be highly interactive, with significant student involvement as well as hands-on lab time. This course could be valuable to a wide variety of individuals, ranging from technicians in commercial industry to higher-level professionals within government agencies as well as SOF operators and other military specialists.
The learning objectives of this course will be to provide the student with the following skills:
- A basic understanding of LPI signals and their structure
- LPI signal location schema
- LPI signal identification strategies
- LPI signal exploitation processes
- Familiarity with basic spectrum analysis principals
- Familiarity with signal capture equipment
The primary method of delivery will be a mix of lecture and practical lab exercises.
The LPI course will be broken-up into 4 days of instruction as follows:
- Day 1 – Introductions and class orientation. Day one will include time to allow students to review the curriculum materials, syllabus and interact with the instructor. Day 1 will proceed into a refresher of basic signal fundamentals (the relationship between frequency and wavelength (λ), frequency bands and designators as well as basics of wave propagation.
- Day 2 – Understanding of what constitutes an LPI signal, and how it differs from other non-LPI signals. Providing examples of real life LPI signals. Discussion of how LPI signals are generated, who is likely to generate them and why. Discussion of where LPI signals can be found and the types of environments in which this variety of signals generally operate.
- Day 3 – Discussion on barriers to LPI signal location and identification. We will discuss some of the challenges to locating LPI signals in high pulse density environments, such as dense urban and metropolitan regions. We will also discuss some of the techniques used to mask such signals. Discussion on developing capture strategies for LPI signals, to include basic spectrum analysis principals, systematic procedures for locating LPI signals with the use of a priori knowledge (deductive reasoning).
- Day 4 – This day will center on the introduction of some general use spectrum analysis equipment (Tools of the trade), as well as an opportunity for students to have an interactive experience with the equipment and the instructor. Some potential activities could include a signal location exercise, either generated in the classroom by the instructor or location of signals of opportunity in the general area. The course will conclude with a quick review session with the students, allowing them to break into groups and answer some questions together, using what they’ve learned, and the issuance of the LPI course certificates to the students.
Low Probability of Intercept Training