Price: $4,999.00

Length: 4 Days
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Fundamentals of Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) Signals Certificate; NATURE, IDENTIFICATION, AND EXPLOITATION STRATEGIES

Fundamentals of Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) Signals Certificate is a 4-day training course  and will provide the foundation for the basic understanding of the following principals:

  • Basic waveform review
  • What a Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) signal is and what it is not
  • How LPI signals are generated
  • The purpose of LPI signals
  • LPI signal identification
  • Barriers to LPI signal identification
  • Capture strategies
  • Required waveform capture equipment
  • Capture equipment overview
  • Practical lab exercises

Intended Audience

This course is designed for the working professional who is actively engaged in the waveform capture and analysis domain (Subject Matter Expert), as well as the junior engineer who wishes to become more familiar with the basic understanding of LPI principals.  The target audience can be drawn from a wide range of industries and agencies, which could be in the private, DoD, law enforcement or government sectors.  There is an assumption that the target audience will possess a fundamental knowledge of waveform structure and basic electromagnetic theory, but this curriculum will provide ample opportunities to focus on fundamentals and refresher topics as well.  The course will be highly interactive, with significant student involvement as well as hands-on lab time.  This course could be valuable to a wide variety of individuals, ranging from technicians in commercial industry to higher-level professionals within government agencies as well as SOF operators and other military specialists.

Learning Objectives

The learning objectives of this course will be to provide the student with the following skills:

  • A basic understanding of LPI signals and their structure
  • LPI signal location schema
  • LPI signal identification strategies
  • LPI signal exploitation processes
  • Familiarity with basic spectrum analysis principals
  • Familiarity with signal capture equipment

Delivery Method

The primary method of delivery will be a mix of lecture and practical lab exercises.


The LPI course will be broken-up into 4 days of instruction as follows:

  • Day 1 – Introductions and class orientation. Day one will include time to allow students to review the curriculum materials, syllabus and interact with the instructor.  Day 1 will proceed into a refresher of basic signal fundamentals (the relationship between frequency and wavelength (λ), frequency bands and designators as well as basics of wave propagation.
  • Day 2 – Understanding of what constitutes an LPI signal, and how it differs from other non-LPI signals. Providing examples of real life LPI signals.  Discussion of how LPI signals are generated, who is likely to generate them and why.  Discussion of where LPI signals can be found and the types of environments in which this variety of signals generally operate.
  • Day 3 – Discussion on barriers to LPI signal location and identification. We will discuss some of the challenges to locating LPI signals in high pulse density environments, such as dense urban and metropolitan regions.  We will also discuss some of the techniques used to mask such signals.  Discussion on developing capture strategies for LPI signals, to include basic spectrum analysis principals, systematic procedures for locating LPI signals with the use of a priori knowledge (deductive reasoning).
  • Day 4 – This day will center on the introduction of some general use spectrum analysis equipment (Tools of the trade), as well as an opportunity for students to have an interactive experience with the equipment and the instructor. Some potential activities could include a signal location exercise, either generated in the classroom by the instructor or location of signals of opportunity in the general area.  The course will conclude with a quick review session with the students, allowing them to break into groups and answer some questions together, using what they’ve learned, and the issuance of the LPI course certificates to the students.





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