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Fundamentals of Organic Electronics, Crash Course

Many analysts believe Organic electronics will transform the way society interacts with new technology.

Organic electronics is a field of materials science concerning the design, synthesis, characterization, and application of organic molecules or polymers that show desirable electronic properties such as conductivity.

Organic semiconductors (OSCs) in particular are receiving increasing attention these days because they have many attractive properties – including light weight, low-cost production, low-temperature processing, mechanical flexibility, and abundant availability – that distinguish them from their conventional inorganic counterparts.

The successful commercialization of active-matrix organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) for high-end smartphone displays suggests that organic compounds have promising prospects for use in various other electrical and optoelectric devices.

Other likely future uses of organic electronics include organic light-emitting diodes for:

  • Displays and lighting applications
  • Electronic paper
  • Thin film batteries
  • Supercapacitors
  • Organic photovoltaics
  • Sensors
  • Biosensors

In contrast with conventional electronics made from inorganic materials such as silicon or metals, organic electronics are made up of carbon-based molecules and polymers.

The use of organic materials gives electronics designers access to a wider range of material properties such as flexibility or high thermal stability. As manufacturing techniques improve, the inherently lower cost of carbon promises cheaper electronics in the long run

Experts in this field believe that organic electronics could be a technological revolution for the production of more ecological and cheaper semiconductors, equipped with more properties, notably for energy recovery, display (which has begun in televisions and flexible computer screens and smartphones) and lighting.

In the automotive market, in particular, flexible hybrid electronics, combining printed and traditional ultrathin, silicon-based electronics, are making major inroads.

For example, Cadillac’s Escalade was fitted with the first curved OLED (organic light-emitting diode) display in the automotive industry. Featuring twice the pixel density of a 4K television and supplied by LG Electronics, this major technology breakthrough used plastic OLED-based digital technology to provide two infotainment screens and an instrument panel to display a wealth of audio, video and navigation content. 

Fundamentals of Organic Electronics, Crash Course by Tonex

Fundamentals of Organic Electronics, Crash Course is a 3-day crash course. Organic Electronics Training Course, crash course style,  is an innovative training program covering trends in today’s rapidly changing electronics industry.

Unlike conventional inorganic conductors and semiconductors, organic electronic materials are composed from organic (carbon-based) small molecules or polymers using synthetic strategies developed using organic and polymer chemistry.

One of the promised benefits of organic electronics is their potential low cost compared to traditional inorganic electronics. Organic electronics is concerned with the field of materials science concerning the design, synthesis, characterization, and application of organic small molecules or polymers that show desirable electronic properties such as conductivity. Conductive polymers are lighter, more flexible, and less expensive than inorganic conductors.

This makes them a desirable alternative in many applications. It also creates the possibility of new applications that would be impossible using copper or silicon. Organic electronics not only includes organic semiconductors, but also organic dielectrics, conductors and light emitters.   A primary motivation for organic electronics is the ability to use printing technologies to print various electronic devices and circuits. Printed electronics is a set of printing methods used to create electrical devices on various substrates.

Printing can use printing equipment suitable for defining patterns on material, such as screen printing, flexography, gravure, offset lithography, and inkjet.   Further, as compared with convention electronic industry processes, electronic printing techniques are low cost processes.

For example, electrically functional electronic or optical inks can be deposited on a substrate (such as a flexible substrate or even a paper-based recyclable substrate), creating active or passive devices, such as thin film transistors, capacitors, coils, and resistors. Printed electronics and organic electronics are expected to facilitate widespread, very low-cost, low-performance electronics for applications such as flexible displays, smart labels, decorative and animated posters, and active clothing and many other devices.

Organic electronics training will cover diverse topics including current and next generation display, transistor, photovoltaic, and sensor technologies, concepts, research, products and services.  

Learn about

  • Overview of current and future flexible electronics technologies
  • Next generation organic electronics capability requirements
  • Organic electronics in the technology roadmap
  • Trends in electronics including next generation displays, devices, transistors, solar cells
  • Organic electronics applications and use cases

  Learning Objectives Upon completion of this hands-on training course, the attendees are able to:

  • Understand the basic concepts behind organic semiconductors and materials
  • Identify the added value of organic electronics over conventional electronics
  • Identify material classes, pros and cons of organic semiconductors
  • Describe basic material characterization techniques
  • Describe basic device architectures for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), organic transistors, and organic solar cells.
  • Describe technology bottlenecks preventing the greater use and implementation of organic electronics technologies
  • Describe applications of organic electronics in a variety of fields including healthcare, human machine interfaces, robotics, mobile devices, augmented reality, virtual reality, mixed reality, energy generation, and many other fields
  • Describe the history and state-of-the-art performance and architectures for the various device types
  • Understand underlying physics concepts as relates to organic-inorganic interfaces, organic-organic interfaces, doping of organic films, light generation
  • Understand loss mechanisms in organic devices such as OLEDs and organic solar cells


History, Overview, Market, Applications

  • History of conductive semiconductors and organic semiconductors and devices
  • Economics and future market potential of organic electronic devices
  • Applications: Healthcare, Wearables, Virtual Reality, Energy, Displays, etc.

Materials: Organic Semiconductors

  • Amorphous Molecular Films
  • Molecularly Doped Polymers
  • Molecular Crystals
  • Neat Polymer Films

Materials: Characterization

  • Energy Levels: Ionization Energy, Electron Affinity, HOMO/LUMO, Measurement techniques: UPS, IPES
  • Mobility: Hole Mobility, Electron Mobility, Measurement Techniques
  • Charge Transport: Single Carrier Devices

Related Materials With Organic Electronics Devices Substrates

  • Glass: Different kinds, Waveguide Modes, Encapsulation Considerations
  • Metal Substrates: Aluminum, Silver, Gold, Etc.
  • Flexible Substrates: Thin Metals, Plastics, Polymers, Shape Memory Polymers, Etc.
  • Biodegradable Substrates: Carbon Nanocellulose
  • General Considerations: Mechanical Testing, Environmental Testing, Etc.


Electrodes: Transparent conducting oxides

  • Theory, Materials, Properties
  • Fabrication: Thermal Evaporation, Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), Other
  • Use in Organic Electronic Devices

Electrodes: Transparent Conducting Polymers

  • Poly(3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene)
  • PEDOT: Poly(Styrene Sulfonate) PSS
  • Fabrication Techniques: Printing, Spin-Coating, Other

Other Electrodes

  • Graphene
  • Carbon nanotubes
  • Thin Metals
  • Other Exotic, Research Level

Electrode Considerations in Organic Electronics

  • General Electronic Properties: Conductivity, Sheet-Resistance, Measurement, Work Function
  • General Optical Properties: Transmittivity/Reflectivity/Absorption, Measurement
  • Effects in Devices: Surface Plasmons, Fermi-Level Pinning
  • Surface Morphology, Deposition Techniques, Measurement

Organic Field-Effect Transistors (OFETs)

OFETs: History OFETs vs. Inorganic Thin-Film Transistors (TFTs) OFET: Device Structures and Operation

  • Device Structures of OFETs
  • Device Operation of OFETs
  • Electrical Characterization of OFETs: Current-Voltage (I-V) Characteristics, Extraction of Electrical Parameters

OFETs: Fabrication

  • Purification and Deposition of Organic Semiconductors
  • Preparation of Gate Dielectrics and Interfacial Control
  • Patterning and Deposition of Metal Contacts

Advanced OFET Characterization Topics:

  • Ohmic Contact, Contact Resistance, Measuring Contact Resistance
  • Charge Transport Across Metal-Organic Interfaces
  • Channel Dimensions
  • Four-probe Measurements, Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy

Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs)

OLEDs: Introduction

  • History
  • Market and Outlook (Mobile Phones, TVs, Flexible Displays)
  • Comparison between OLEDs and other display technologies (LCD, LED, etc.)
  • Performance Targets
  • OLED Applications: Flexible Display, Passive-Matrix Tiling, Active-Matrix Tiling

OLEDs: Display Structure

  • Device Principles and Mechanisms
  • Basic Device Structure
  • Device Architectures: Light Emission from the Bottom and Top of the OLED Device
  • Stacked OLEDs (RGB, White OLEDs)
  • Inverted OLEDs, Stacked Inverted OLEDs
  • Light Extraction Enhancement: Microlens Arrays, Diffusion Structure, Microgrids

OLEDs: Light Emission

  • Fundamentals of photometry: radiance, luminance, photometric versus radiometric quantities, what is used for OLEDs and why
  • Fluorescent OLED
  • Phosphorescent OLED
  • Thermally activated delayed fluorescent (TADF) OLED
  • Metrics: Emission Efficiency, External Quantum Efficiency, Internal Quantum Efficiency, Current and Power Efficiencies
  • Color Reproduction, CIE-coordinates, White-point, CRE

OLEDs: Fabrication

  • Material Preparation, Purification Process
  • Thermal Evaporation Processing: Evaporation Sources, Shadow Mask Patterning
  • Solution-Processed Materials and Technologies
  • Screen printing
  • Lithography
  • Encapsulation: Barrier Technologies, WVTR Measurement
  • Next-Generation OLED Manufacturing Tools
  • Vapor Injection Source Technology (VIST) Deposition
  • Hot-Wall Method
  • Organic Vapor-Phase Deposition (OVPD) Method

OLED Display Modules

  • OLED Module Components
  • Passive-Matrix OLED Display: Structure, Pixel Driving
  • Active-Matrix OLED Display: Structure, Driving: Two-Transistor One-Capacitor (2T1C) Driving Circuit

Organic Photovoltaic Devices (OPV)

OPV: Introduction

  • Why OPV: Cost, Flexibility, Environmental Friendliness, Etc.
  • Market History and Outlook: Top Companies and Universities
  • Comparison with Silicon Solar Cell Technology
  • State-of-the Art Performance to Date
  • Commercialization Efforts

OPV Fundamentals

  • Circuit Models, Open-Circuit Voltage, Shunt Resistance, Series Resistance, Testing, Efficiency
  • Charge Carrier Mobility and Transport
  • Measurement Considerations: AM1.5, Solar Lamps, Lab Testing Vs. Environmental Testing

OPV: Structure and Architecture

  • Single layer
  • Bilayer
  • Heterojunction
  • Bulk Heterojunction
  • Ordered Heterojunctions
  • Stacked/Tandem OPVS
  • Hybrid Organic-Inorganic OPVS

OPV: Fabrication

  • Printing, Wet-Processing
  • Vacuum Thermal Evaporation
  • Organic Vapor Phase Deposition
  • Organic Solar Inks

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