Length: 3 Days
Fundamentals of Organic Electronics, Crash Course
Organic electronics is important because of the considerable benefits for organizations.
These potential benefits of organic electronics technology include allowing for high-throughput manufacturing, lower-costs, ultralightweight products and flexible devices.
Organic electronics is a field of materials science focusing on design, synthesis, characterization, and application of organic small molecules or polymers that show unique electronic properties such as conductivity.
Organic electronic materials are constructed on a carbon-based backbone much like polymers. They are created by means of a chemical synthesis called polymerization. Organic electronics, however, is not limited to conducting polymers.
Just as organic electronics can be used to generate light, they can also convert light into electricity when used in solar panels. Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) have a very similar structure to OLEDs and can do the same job as the silicon-based solar panels already used across the world.
Traditional conductive materials are inorganic, especially using metals such as copper and aluminum as well as many alloys. But in the 1950s, organic molecules were shown to exhibit electrical conductivity. Specifically, the organic compound pyrene was shown to form semiconducting charge-transfer complex salts with halogens. In 1972, researchers found metallic conductivity (conductivity comparable to a metal) in the charge-transfer complex TTF-TCNQ.
According to an analysis by Emergen Research, the global organic electronics market size was $55.18 billion in 2020 and is expected to reach $178.25 billion in 2028 and register a revenue CAGR of 15.4% during the forecast period, 2021-2028.
Analysts report that increasing focus on production of environmentally sustainable and cost-effective semiconductors, rising demand for consumer electronics, and growing need to integrate advanced and novel functionalities in electronic products are some key factors driving market growth.
Organic electronics research has expanded in the last few years owing to its high potential to accelerate development of products that can complement silicon-based applications with integration of novel and advanced functionalities that can address limitations of silicon technologies.
Organic electronic devices’ performance is majorly dependent on fabrication procedure and processing parameters and recent advances in fabrication technologies have led to the development of novel materials to improve properties of devices.
All these benefits are expected to further fuel revenue growth of the market over the coming years.
Fundamentals of Organic Electronics, Crash Course by Tonex
Fundamentals of Organic Electronics, Crash Course is a 3-day crash course. Organic Electronics Training Course, crash course style, is an innovative training program covering trends in today’s rapidly changing electronics industry.
Unlike conventional inorganic conductors and semiconductors, organic electronic materials are composed from organic (carbon-based) small molecules or polymers using synthetic strategies developed using organic and polymer chemistry.
One of the promised benefits of organic electronics is their potential low cost compared to traditional inorganic electronics. Organic electronics is concerned with the field of materials science concerning the design, synthesis, characterization, and application of organic small molecules or polymers that show desirable electronic properties such as conductivity. Conductive polymers are lighter, more flexible, and less expensive than inorganic conductors.
This makes them a desirable alternative in many applications. It also creates the possibility of new applications that would be impossible using copper or silicon. Organic electronics not only includes organic semiconductors, but also organic dielectrics, conductors and light emitters. A primary motivation for organic electronics is the ability to use printing technologies to print various electronic devices and circuits. Printed electronics is a set of printing methods used to create electrical devices on various substrates.
Printing can use printing equipment suitable for defining patterns on material, such as screen printing, flexography, gravure, offset lithography, and inkjet. Further, as compared with convention electronic industry processes, electronic printing techniques are low cost processes.
For example, electrically functional electronic or optical inks can be deposited on a substrate (such as a flexible substrate or even a paper-based recyclable substrate), creating active or passive devices, such as thin film transistors, capacitors, coils, and resistors. Printed electronics and organic electronics are expected to facilitate widespread, very low-cost, low-performance electronics for applications such as flexible displays, smart labels, decorative and animated posters, and active clothing and many other devices.
Organic electronics training will cover diverse topics including current and next generation display, transistor, photovoltaic, and sensor technologies, concepts, research, products and services.
- Overview of current and future flexible electronics technologies
- Next generation organic electronics capability requirements
- Organic electronics in the technology roadmap
- Trends in electronics including next generation displays, devices, transistors, solar cells
- Organic electronics applications and use cases
Learning Objectives Upon completion of this hands-on training course, the attendees are able to:
- Understand the basic concepts behind organic semiconductors and materials
- Identify the added value of organic electronics over conventional electronics
- Identify material classes, pros and cons of organic semiconductors
- Describe basic material characterization techniques
- Describe basic device architectures for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), organic transistors, and organic solar cells.
- Describe technology bottlenecks preventing the greater use and implementation of organic electronics technologies
- Describe applications of organic electronics in a variety of fields including healthcare, human machine interfaces, robotics, mobile devices, augmented reality, virtual reality, mixed reality, energy generation, and many other fields
- Describe the history and state-of-the-art performance and architectures for the various device types
- Understand underlying physics concepts as relates to organic-inorganic interfaces, organic-organic interfaces, doping of organic films, light generation
- Understand loss mechanisms in organic devices such as OLEDs and organic solar cells
History, Overview, Market, Applications
- History of conductive semiconductors and organic semiconductors and devices
- Economics and future market potential of organic electronic devices
- Applications: Healthcare, Wearables, Virtual Reality, Energy, Displays, etc.
Materials: Organic Semiconductors
- Amorphous Molecular Films
- Molecularly Doped Polymers
- Molecular Crystals
- Neat Polymer Films
- Energy Levels: Ionization Energy, Electron Affinity, HOMO/LUMO, Measurement techniques: UPS, IPES
- Mobility: Hole Mobility, Electron Mobility, Measurement Techniques
- Charge Transport: Single Carrier Devices
Related Materials With Organic Electronics Devices Substrates
- Glass: Different kinds, Waveguide Modes, Encapsulation Considerations
- Metal Substrates: Aluminum, Silver, Gold, Etc.
- Flexible Substrates: Thin Metals, Plastics, Polymers, Shape Memory Polymers, Etc.
- Biodegradable Substrates: Carbon Nanocellulose
- General Considerations: Mechanical Testing, Environmental Testing, Etc.
Electrodes: Transparent conducting oxides
- Theory, Materials, Properties
- Fabrication: Thermal Evaporation, Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), Other
- Use in Organic Electronic Devices
Electrodes: Transparent Conducting Polymers
- PEDOT: Poly(Styrene Sulfonate) PSS
- Fabrication Techniques: Printing, Spin-Coating, Other
- Carbon nanotubes
- Thin Metals
- Other Exotic, Research Level
Electrode Considerations in Organic Electronics
- General Electronic Properties: Conductivity, Sheet-Resistance, Measurement, Work Function
- General Optical Properties: Transmittivity/Reflectivity/Absorption, Measurement
- Effects in Devices: Surface Plasmons, Fermi-Level Pinning
- Surface Morphology, Deposition Techniques, Measurement
Organic Field-Effect Transistors (OFETs)
OFETs: History OFETs vs. Inorganic Thin-Film Transistors (TFTs) OFET: Device Structures and Operation
- Device Structures of OFETs
- Device Operation of OFETs
- Electrical Characterization of OFETs: Current-Voltage (I-V) Characteristics, Extraction of Electrical Parameters
- Purification and Deposition of Organic Semiconductors
- Preparation of Gate Dielectrics and Interfacial Control
- Patterning and Deposition of Metal Contacts
Advanced OFET Characterization Topics:
- Ohmic Contact, Contact Resistance, Measuring Contact Resistance
- Charge Transport Across Metal-Organic Interfaces
- Channel Dimensions
- Four-probe Measurements, Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy
Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs)
- Market and Outlook (Mobile Phones, TVs, Flexible Displays)
- Comparison between OLEDs and other display technologies (LCD, LED, etc.)
- Performance Targets
- OLED Applications: Flexible Display, Passive-Matrix Tiling, Active-Matrix Tiling
OLEDs: Display Structure
- Device Principles and Mechanisms
- Basic Device Structure
- Device Architectures: Light Emission from the Bottom and Top of the OLED Device
- Stacked OLEDs (RGB, White OLEDs)
- Inverted OLEDs, Stacked Inverted OLEDs
- Light Extraction Enhancement: Microlens Arrays, Diffusion Structure, Microgrids
OLEDs: Light Emission
- Fundamentals of photometry: radiance, luminance, photometric versus radiometric quantities, what is used for OLEDs and why
- Fluorescent OLED
- Phosphorescent OLED
- Thermally activated delayed fluorescent (TADF) OLED
- Metrics: Emission Efficiency, External Quantum Efficiency, Internal Quantum Efficiency, Current and Power Efficiencies
- Color Reproduction, CIE-coordinates, White-point, CRE
- Material Preparation, Purification Process
- Thermal Evaporation Processing: Evaporation Sources, Shadow Mask Patterning
- Solution-Processed Materials and Technologies
- Screen printing
- Encapsulation: Barrier Technologies, WVTR Measurement
- Next-Generation OLED Manufacturing Tools
- Vapor Injection Source Technology (VIST) Deposition
- Hot-Wall Method
- Organic Vapor-Phase Deposition (OVPD) Method
OLED Display Modules
- OLED Module Components
- Passive-Matrix OLED Display: Structure, Pixel Driving
- Active-Matrix OLED Display: Structure, Driving: Two-Transistor One-Capacitor (2T1C) Driving Circuit
Organic Photovoltaic Devices (OPV)
- Why OPV: Cost, Flexibility, Environmental Friendliness, Etc.
- Market History and Outlook: Top Companies and Universities
- Comparison with Silicon Solar Cell Technology
- State-of-the Art Performance to Date
- Commercialization Efforts
- Circuit Models, Open-Circuit Voltage, Shunt Resistance, Series Resistance, Testing, Efficiency
- Charge Carrier Mobility and Transport
- Measurement Considerations: AM1.5, Solar Lamps, Lab Testing Vs. Environmental Testing
OPV: Structure and Architecture
- Single layer
- Bulk Heterojunction
- Ordered Heterojunctions
- Stacked/Tandem OPVS
- Hybrid Organic-Inorganic OPVS
- Printing, Wet-Processing
- Vacuum Thermal Evaporation
- Organic Vapor Phase Deposition
- Organic Solar Inks