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Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing Training Workshop, GD&T Workshop

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Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing (GD&T) is a system of symbols and standards used by engineers to provide manufacturing information to the production team.

GD&T is important because it ensures that mating parts fit together well and the universal language works regardless of who you are working with. Tolerances also give a limit to worst-case conditions and defines production and inspection processes.

Today, GD&T is an important part of engineering, especially when creating parts that require CNC machining services. The American standard describing the features is ASME Y14.5-2018 and the European equivalent is ISO 1101-2017.

GD&T focuses solely on the geometry of the product. Linear dimensions, surface roughness, threads, etc. are not part of this standard.  It uses a symbolic language on engineering drawings and computer-generated three-dimensional solid models that explicitly describe nominal geometry and its allowable variation.

There are three basic tolerances that occur most often on working drawings:

  1. Limit Dimensions – These are two dimensional values stacked on top of each other. The dimensions show the largest and smallest values allowed. Anything in between these values is acceptable. These are limit dimensions because the upper and lower dimensional sizes are stacked on top of each other.
  2. Unilateral – A unilateral tolerance exists when a target dimension is given along with a tolerance that allows variation to occur in only one direction. This tolerance is unilateral, because the size may only deviate in one direction.
  3. Bilateral Tolerances – A bilateral tolerance exists if the variation from a target dimension is shown occurring in both the positive and negative directions.

When documented correctly using GD&T, it is possible to build a part that exactly matches its on-paper plans.

The drawing is the controlling document that ensures the vendor is creating precisely what the customer’s design requires.  Machinists and quality engineers use GD&T, print dimensions, and drawing notes to develop a manufacturing process and inspection methodology that will construct high-precision components matching the designer’s original vision.

Proper print detailing also helps with measurement correlation to aid in the communication between customer and vendor.

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing Training Workshop by Tonex

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing Training Workshop covers the key concept of Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing or GD&T based on ASME Y14.5-2018 (replacement of ASME Y14.5-2009).

GD&T is an essential tool for communicating design intent part of engineering product definition and related documentation practices. Engineering drawings, models defined in digital data files, and in related documents technical drawings have the desired form, fit, function and interchangeability. GD&T reduces guesswork throughout the manufacturing process by providing uniformity in drawing specifications and interpretation. In addition  GD&T helps with improving quality, lowering costs, and shortening deliveries.

ASME Y14.5 standard is considered the authoritative guideline for the design language of GD&T (geometric dimensioning and tolerancing). Participants will learn about key principles of  establishes symbols, rules, definitions, requirements, defaults, and recommended practices for stating and interpreting GD&T and related requirements. Other concepts are discussed including feature of size, datum references and degrees of freedom, composite position tolerances, surface boundaries and axis methods of interpretation, profile tolerances and symbology and modifiers tools.

ASME Y14.5, Dimensioning and Tolerancing, was adopted on 9 February 2009 for use by the Department of Defense (DoD). Proposed changes by DoD activities must be submitted to the DoD Adopting Activity: Commander, U.S. Army Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC), ATTN: AMSRD-AAR-QES-E, Picatinny Arsenal, NJ 07806-5000. American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME); http://www.asme.org.

Who Should Attend

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing Training Workshop is designed for engineers, managers, and employees with little or no Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T) experience. The course is also useful for those who have experience with Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T) but have never had any formal training on the standard.

What You Will Learn

  • An overview of the Engineering Drawings and Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T)
  • The basic principles of GD&T, terminology, rules, symbols, and key concepts
  • Why Implement GD&T Processes?
  • How GD&T Works
  • Dimensions, Tolerances, and Notes
  • How to use Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T)
  • A summary of Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T) tools and applications
  • Various types of geometric tolerances
  • GD&T Tolerancing Guidelines
  • Geometric Tolerancing Symbols
  • General dimensioning symbols and  various tolerancing symbols and
  • Concepts of worst-case boundary, virtual condition, and bonus tolerance
  • The datum system, datum targets, and size datum features

Workshop Topics and Outline

The Basics of Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T)

  • The Basics
  • Issues with Functional Assemblies and Multi-part Products, or parts with complex functionality
  • Engineering Drawings and Dimensions f
  • Dimensions and Tolerance Values
  • Minimum and Maximum Acceptable Limit
  • Communicating Design intent and engineering tolerances
  • Accurate Tolerancing Specification
  • Manufacturing and Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing
  • Allowable variation within the product assembly
  • Standardization of how the variation is measured
  • GD&T based on ASME Y14.5-2018
  • GD&T and ISO 1101-2017
  • Using GD&T system for streamlining communication about the design in both traditional and digital manufacturing
  • Limitations of Tolerancing Before GD&T
  • Why Implement GD&T Processes?
  • How GD&T Works
  • GD&T Tolerancing Guidelines
  • Geometric Tolerancing Symbols
  • Feature Control Frame (FCF)
  • GD&T Case Study

Fundamental Rules, Tolerancing Defaults, and Dimensioning Practices          

  • Fundamental Rules
  • Units of Measure
  • Types of Dimensioning
  • Application of Dimensions
  • Dimensioning Features
  • Location of Features

Tolerancing, Interpretation of Limits, Limits of Size, and Material Condition Modifiers

  • Direct Tolerancing Methods
  • Tolerance Expression
  • Interpretation of Limits
  • Single Limit Toleranced Dimensions
  • Tolerance Accumulation Between Surfaces
  • Dimensions Related to an Origin
  • Limits of Size
  • Applicability of Modifiers on Geometric Tolerance Values and Datum Feature References
  • Screw Threads
  • Gears and Splines
  • Boundary Conditions
  • Angular Surfaces
  • Conical Tapers
  • Flat Tapers
  • Radius
  • Tangent Plane
  • Statistical Tolerancing

GD&T Symbology                                                         

  • Use of Notes to Supplement Symbols
  • Symbol Construction
  • Feature Control Frame Symbols
  • Feature Control Frame Placement
  • Tolerance Zone Shape
  • Tabulated Tolerances

GD&T Datum Reference Frames                                             

  • Degrees of Freedom
  • Degrees of Freedom Constrained by Primary Datum Features RMB
  • Constraining Degrees of Freedom of a Part
  • True Geometric Counterpart
  • True Geometric Counterparts and Physical Datum Feature Simulators
  • Datum Reference Frame
  • Datum Features
  • Datum Feature Controls
  • Specifying Datum Features in an Order of Precedence
  • Establishing Datums
  • Common Datum Features
  • Mathematically Defined Surface
  • Multiple Datum Reference Frames
  • Functional Datum Features
  • Rotational Constraint About a Datum Axis or Point
  • Application of MMB, LMB, and RMB to Irregular Features of Size

Datum Feature Selection Practical Application                                

  • Simultaneous Requirements
  • Restrained Condition
  • Datum Reference Frame Identification
  • Customized Datum Reference Frame Construction
  • Application of a Customized Datum Reference Frame
  • Datum Targets

GD&T Tolerances of Form                                                  

  • Form Control
  • Specifying Form Tolerances
  • Form Tolerances
  • Average Diameter

GD&T Tolerances of Orientation                                             

  • Orientation Control
  • Specifying Orientation Tolerances
  • Tangent Plane
  • Alternative Practice

GD&T Tolerances of Position                                                

  • Positional Tolerancing
  • Positional Tolerancing Fundamentals
  • Pattern Location
  • Coaxial Feature Controls
  • Tolerancing for Symmetrical Relationships

GD&T Tolerances of Profile                                                 

  • Profile
  • Tolerance Zone Boundaries
  • Profile Applications
  • Material Condition and Boundary Condition Modifiers as Related to Profile Controls
  • Composite Profile
  • Multiple Single-Segment Profile Tolerancing
  • Combined Controls
  • Profile of a Line as a Refinement
  • Dynamic Profile Tolerance Modifier

GD&T Tolerances of Runout                                                 

  • Runout
  • Runout Tolerance
  • Types of Runout Tolerances
  • Runout Tolerance and Size
  • Application
  • Specification

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing Training Workshop, GD&T Workshop

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