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Military EMI/EMC Training

EMI/EMC (electromagnetic interference/electromagnetic compatibility) shielding is used to give a device total protection from its outside environment and any potential interference that may affect its performance, which can be dangerous depending on the purpose of the equipment.

EMI/EMC shielding is particularly crucial for the DoD. Consequently, EMI/EMC shielding has become a common addition to military technology to allow defense personnel to protect sensitive equipment against interference.

For Army personnel, for example, scrambled or missing transmissions can put troops in harm’s way. Shielding prevents EMI from disrupting communications among devices.

EMI shielding in military flight systems helps prevent the shutdown of engines and scrambling of digital instruments.

Then there’s necessary EMI protection for military radio controllers/control panels. EMI shielding designs based on interference information help with this.

MIL-STD-461 provides the requirements for the control of electromagnetic interference (EMI) emissions and susceptibility characteristics of electronic, electrical, and electromechanical equipment and subsystems designed or procured for use by activities and agencies of the Department of Defense.

This standard is best suited for bench top mounted or free standing equipment, with a power input current draw of less than 200 amps. It is not commonly applied to items such as components and independent modules located inside electronic enclosures, nor entire platforms such as an aircraft or submarines.

Of particular concern to the DoD is when EMI is intentionally used in electronic warfare for radio jamming.

EMC can be grouped into two categories:

  • Immunity testing – measures how a device will react when exposed to electromagnetic noise and other disturbances. The purpose of these tests is to gain a reasonable assurance that the device will operate as intended when used within its expected operating environment.
  • Emissions testing – measures the amount of electromagnetic noise generated by a device during normal operation. The purpose of these tests is to ensure that any emission from the device are below the relevant limits defined for that type of device. This, in turn, provides a reasonable assurance that the device will not cause harmful interference to other devices operating within its expected operating environment.

Regulatory compliance and due diligence require that electronic devices undergo one or both types of testing.

One of the main principles in the design of EMI shielding is that you need to use conductive materials to form the barrier which will break the interference, and this is based on the idea of the Faraday cage.

This is the relatively simple aspect of shielding construction – but the more complicated element is that the device needs to be completely enveloped by the enclosure. This is not easy to achieve when access to the device itself is needed, and many shielding enclosures come in at least two parts for this reason.

The conductive continuity between these two parts must not be broken, otherwise the interference can find its way through the gap and the shielding will be rendered useless. This space is often filled by rubber seals in order to keep out environmental hazards such as water and dirt, but because EMI can pass through rubber this must also be enclosed in metal wire that maintains contact with both parts of the enclosure.

Usually, as long as any gaps left are under 3mm, effective shielding from EMI can still be maintained.

Military EMI/EMC Training Course by Tonex

Military EMI/EMC Training, a 3-day comprehensive training covers the theory of EMC/EMI and all aspects of MIL-STD-461 and MIl-STD-464.

Military Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC/EMI) Training Program is applicable to engineers, technicians, analysts and managers interested in the military EMC fields such as: bonding, shielding, grounding, EMI prediction, EMI analysis, conducted and radiated interference, lightning protection and more.

The 3-day military EMI/EMC training covers the basic math and the physics of EMI/EMC and the fundamentals of instrumentation, instruments, test setups, and real measurements.

Military Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC/EMI) is designed for anyone work on advanced technology systems, complex system of systems (SoS) and components in military applications. End-to-end testing helping you ensure the electromagnetic compatibility of your equipment & subsystems to any version of MIL-STD 461 and MIL-STD 464.

With over 25 years of MIL-STD testing training and consulting experience, we prepare you to evaluate your equipment and subsystems to extreme electromagnetic conditions to ensure the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and mission readiness of your equipment is performed correctly. Our streamlined testing process techniques keeps lead time to a minimum.

Achieving electromagnet compatibility compliance performance of equipment and systems is essential to ensure the safety, reliability and availability of the equipment in its intended installation environment: military procurement contracts specify the level of EMC performance required (usually in reference to test standards such as Defense Standard 59-411, MIL-STD 461)

The purpose of the Military EMI/EMC Training Program is to foster technical “excellence” in military EMC engineering. This approach establishes technical competency criteria for EMC and enforces these criteria for technical personnel performing EMI control work.

Participants will be competent in the fundamentals, i.e., coupling, filters, shielding, etc. as well as the specifications which apply to their particular military specialty.

Learning Objectives:

After completing this course, the participants will be able to:

  • Learn the fundamentals of EMI and EMC
  • Differentiate between military and commercial EMI/EMC requirements, test plans and standards
  • Describe EMI/EMC requirements, design impact and standards: MIL-STD-461, MIL-STD-464, Def Stan 59-411 and other military standards
  • Design impact (by requirement) of military EMC specifications (MIL-STD-461 and MIL-STD-464)
  • Identify, prevent, and fix common EMI/EMC problems in military systems
  • Plan and create EMC testing, test plan documentation and risk assessment
  • Learn about military EMC measurement, modeling, tools and analysis techniques
  • Learn about tools and techniques to analyze potential military EMI problems by identifying the source, the receptor and the coupling path in military environments, systems, platforms and facilities
  • List military EMC protection techniques including: grounding, bonding, shielding, filtering and printed circuit board design.
  • Harden military electronic systems using the appropriate EMC protection techniques
  • Analyze military EMI diagnostic and troubleshooting techniques to locate and fix EMI/SI/EMC problems
  • Calculate EM propagation
  • Plan and prioritize EMI/EMC requirements (Control Plans, Test Plans, and Test Reports)
  • Perform a compliance risk assessment for military and commercial off the shelf system/subsystem/equipment/component

Who Should Attend

Target Audience:  The intended audience for this training are testers, planners, managers, technicians, compliance engineers and electrical/electronic engineers involved in the design, development, testing and production of military electrical and electronic equipment:

  • Engineers and managers in military electronic-system design, development analysis and test and evaluation
  • Compliance Engineer
  • EMI/EMC Design Engineer
  • EMC Test Engineer/Technician
  • EMI/RFI Engineer/Technician
  • Verification Engineers/Technicians
  • Mechanical designers
  • Laboratory personnel

Method of Learning

The class consists of pedagogical elements that are interwoven to maximize the use of individual, group and class time. These elements include lectures, in-class activities, group assignments, and problem scenarios to role play and find solutions.

Courses Material, Tools and Guides:

  • Course Student Guide
  • Exercises and Workshops Guide
  • Training Resources: Best Practices, Lessons Learned, Stories, Guides, Handbooks, Templates, Examples, Tools
  • Cheat Sheets
  • Organizational examples of common problems
  • Organizational examples of solutions

Topics Included:

  • Amplifiers
  • Antennas
  • Coupling
  • Electrical Networks
  • EMC Design
  • EMC Management
  • EMI Prediction and Analysis
  • EMP
  • ESD
  • Field Theory
  • Filters
  • Grounding and Bonding
  • Lightning
  • Mathematics
  • Safety (HERP, HERF, HERO)
  • Shielding
  • Signal and Transforms
  • Special Devices, Materials and components
  • Military EMI/EMC Specifications and Standard
  • Spectrum Analysis
  • Test and Measurement / Test Facilities
  • Major airframe manufacturer, shipyard and military agency
  • Transmission Line
  • MIL-STD-461 (All Revisions)
  • MIL-STD-285
  • MIL-STD-704
  • MIL-STD-1399
  • NSA 65-5/6
  • MIL-E-6051
  • MIL-STD-220
  • DO-160
  • IEC61000 Series
  • FCC PART 2, 15, 18, 74, 90, 95
  • Lightning (Multiple Stroke/Burst)

Course Outline/Agenda:

Introduction to EMI/EMC

  • Overview of EMI/EMC
  • EMI/EMC Concepts, Definitions and Requirements
  • What is EMI?
  • Electromagnetic Energy
  • Sources of EMI
  • Effects on the Functioning of an Electronic Device
  • Electromagnetic Radiation
  • Radio Waves
  • Electromagnetic Interference
  • EMI Concepts and Threats
  • Environmental Events
  • EMC as a measure
  • Device’s Ability to Operate as Intended
  • Shared Operating Environment
  • Emissions Testing
  • Measuring the amount of EMI generated by the device’s internal electrical systems
  • Measuring and Monitoring EMC
  • Immunity (or susceptibility) testing
  • Regulatory Guidelines for EMC Testing
  • FCC Part 15
  • MIL-STD 461 and MIL-STD 464
  • EMI and EMC Testing Products
  • MIL-STD-461 & MIL-STD-464
  • EMC Troubleshooting

EMI/EMC Requirements and Techniques

  • EMC Testing
  • EMC Modeling and Analysis
  • EM Propagation and Crosstalk
  • EM Hardening Techniques
  • Coupling
  • Grounding
  • Power
  • Cables and Connectors
  • Shielding
  • EMI/EMC Test Plans
  • EMI/EMC Risk Assessment
  • EMI/EMC Risk Mitigation
  • Military EMC Guidelines
  • DOD Spectrum Regulation
  • Overview of Military EMC Requirements
  • MIL-STD-461
  • MIL-STD-464
  • CFR 47, Part 1550
  • CFR 47, Part 1851
  • CFR 47, Part 9552
  • RE101: Radiated Emissions–Magnetic Field
  • RE102: Radiated Emissions–Electric Field
  • RS101: Radiated Susceptibility–Magnetic Field
  • RS103: Radiated Susceptibility–Electric Field

Military EMC Testing Capabilities

  • MIL-STD 461 Testing
  • MIL-STD 464 Testing
  • Conducted Emissions Testing
  • Radiated Emissions Testing
  • Conducted Susceptibility Testing
  • Radiated Susceptibility Testing
  • Power Quality Testing
  • MIL-STD 704, MIL-STD 1275, MIL-STD 1399

Military Shielding Effectiveness

  • IEEE-299 (MIL-STD-285)
  • ASTM D4935
  • MIL-STD-1678-3 (3308)
  • MIL-PRF-28876 – Fiber Optic Connector Assembly Shielding Effectiveness
  • MIL-PRF-85045 – Fiber Optic Cabling Shielding Effectiveness
  • MIL-DTL-83526 – Connectors, Fiber Optic, Circular, Environmental Resistant, Hermaphroditic, General Specification for FSC: 6060
  • Military Environmental Simulation Testing
  • MIL-STD 810G
  • MIL-STD 167
  • MIL-S 901 Testing
  • Military Fiber Optics Testing
  • Body Armor Testing
  • Aircraft Testing

MIL-STD-461, MIL-STD-462

  • EMC for Subsystems and Equipment
  • Conducted emissions: CE101, CE102, CE106
  • Conducted susceptibility: CS101, CS103, CS104, CS105, CS106 CS109, CS114, CS115, CS116
  • Radiated emissions: RE101, RE102, RE103 (up to 40 GHz)
  • Radiated susceptibility: RS101, RS103 (200 V/m up to 40 GHz), RS105 (50,000 V/m)

MIL-STD 464 Testing

  • External RF EMC (Reverb: up to 27,460V/m)
  • Electrostatic Discharge Testing (ESD)
  • Electrical Bonding

Power Quality and Qualification Testing

  • MIL-STD-704 – Requirements and characteristics of aircraft electric power provided at the input terminals of electric utilization equipment
  • MIL-HDBK-704-1 through -8
  • Test methods and procedures for determining airborne utilization equipment compliance
  • Electric power characteristics requirements defined herein
  • MIL-STD-1275 – Limits of steady state and transient voltage characteristics 28 VDC electrical power systems for military ground vehicles
  • MIL-STD-1399 Section 070 & 300 – Standard interface requirements for and the constraints on the design for shipboard user equipment utilizing shipboard alternating current (AC) electrical power.
  • MIL-PRF-28800 – General requirements for test equipment used in testing and

Analysis of Design Techniques and Procedures

  • EMICP [Electromagnetic Interference Control Procedures]
  • Spectrum management techniques
  • EMI Mechanical Design
  • Type of metals, casting, finishes, and hardware
  • Construction techniques
  • Shielding
  • Methods of bonding mating surfaces
  • Electrical and electronic circuit design
  • Filtering techniques
  • Part location and separation
  • Location, shielding, and isolation of critical circuits



APPENDIX A; Active US military EMC standards for equipment, systems and facilities

MIL-STD-188-124Grounding, Bonding and Shielding for Common Long Haul/Tactical Communications Systems Including Ground Based Communication-Electronics Facilities and Equipments
MIL-STD-188-125-1High-Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse (HEMP) Protection For Ground-Based C41 Facilities Performing Critical, Time-Urgent Missions – Part 1 – Fixed Facilities
MIL-STD-188-125-2High-Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse (HEMP) Protection For Ground-Based C4I Facilities Performing Critical, Time-Urgent Missions – Part 2 – TransporTable Systems
MIL-STD-331CEnvironmental and Performance Tests for Fuze and Fuze Components
MIL-STD-449DMeasurement of Radio Frequency Spectrum Characteristics
MIL-STD-461FRequirements for the Control of Electromagnetic Interference Characteristics of Subsystems and Equipment
MIL-STD-464AElectromagnetic Environmental Effects – Requirements for Systems
MIL-STD-704FAircraft electric Power Characteristics
MIL-STD-1310HShipboard Bonding, Grounding, and other Techniques for Electromagnetic Compatibility, Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) Mitigation, and Safety
MIL-STD-1377Measurement of effectiveness of cable, connector, and weapons enclosure shielding and filters in precluding Hazards of electromagnetic radiation to ordnance
DOD-STD-1399-70-1Interface Standard for Shipboard Systems – Section 070 – Part 1 – DC Magnetic Field Environment
MIL-STD-1399-300BInterface Standard for Shipboard Systems – Section 300 – Electric Power, Alternating Current
MIL-STD-1541AElectromagnetic Compatibility Requirements for Space Systems
MIL-STD-1542BElectromagnetic Compatibility and Grounding Requirements for Space System Facilities
MIL-STD-1576Electroexplosive Subsystem Safety Requirements and Test Methods for Space Systems
MIL-STD-1605AProcedures for Conducting a Shipboard Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Survey (Surface Ship)
MIL-STD-2169BHigh Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse (HEMP) Environment.


Appendix B: Active US military handbooks relating to EMC

MIL-HDBK-235BElectromagnetic (Radiated) Environment Considerations for Design and Procurement of Electrical and Electronic Equipment, Subsystems and systems
MIL-HDBK-237DElectromagnetic Environmental Effects and Spectrum Supportability Guidance for the Acquisition Process
MIL-HDBK-240Hazards of Electromagnetic Radiation to Ordnance (HERO) Test Guide
MIL-HDBK-274Electrical Grounding for Aircraft safety
MIL-HDBK-419AGrounding, Bonding and Shielding for Electronic Equipments and Facilities, Volume 1 of 2 Basic Theory
MIL-HDBK-423High-Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse (HEMP) Protection for Fixed and TransporTable Ground-Based C4 1 Facilities – Volume 1 – Fixed Facilities
MIL-HDBK-454BGeneral Guidelines for Electronic Equipment
MIL-HDBK-83575General Handbook for Space Vehicle Wiring Harness Design and Testing
MIL-HDBK-83578Criteria for Explosive Systems and Devices used on Space Vehicles


Appendix C: EMC Data Item Descriptions and Test Operational Procedures

ReferenceTitleAssociated with
DI-EMCS-80199CElectromagnetic Interference Control Procedures (EMICP)MIL-STD-461F
DI-EMCS-80200CElectromagnetic Interference Test Report (EMITR)MIL-STD-461F
DI-EMCS-80201CElectromagnetic Interference Test Procedures (EMITP)MIL-STD-461F
DI-EMCS-81295AElectromagnetic Effects Verification Procedures (EMEVP)Engineering/manufacturing development phase – any
DI-EMCS-81528Electromagnetic Compatibility Program ProceduresDemo of life cycle EMC compliance – any
DI-EMCS-81540AElectromagnetic Environmental Effects (E3) Integration and Analysis Report (E31AR)MIL-STD-464A
DI-EMCS-81541AElectromagnetic Environmental Effects (E3) Verification Procedures (E3VP)MIL-STD-464A
DI-EMCS-81542AElectromagnetic Environmental Effects (E3) Verification Report (E3VR)MIL-STD-464A
DI-EMCS-81777Electromagnetic Interference Survey (EMIS) Test ReportMIL-STD-1605A
DI-EMCS-81782Electromagnetic Interference Survey (EMIS) Test ProceduresMIL-STD-1605A
TOP-1-2-511Electromagnetic Environmental Effects System TestingMIL-STD-464A
TOP 1-2-622Vertical Electromagnetic Pulse (VEMP) TestingMIL-STD-464A and



Appendix  D: MIL-STD-461F requirement changes from versions E to F (2007)

TestDescriptionLowest Emission or Highest SusceptibilityChanges from 461E version
CE101Conducted Emissions, Power Leads, 30 Hz to 10 kHz76 dBµA
CE102Conducted Emissions, Power Leads, 10 kHz to 10 MHz60 dBµV
CE106Conducted Emissions, Antenna Terminal, 10 kHz to 40 GHz34 dBµV
CS101Conducted Susceptibility, Power Leads, 30 Hz to 150 kHz136 dBµVApplicability added for surface ships; setup modifications suggested.
CS103Conducted Susceptibility, Antenna Port, Intermodulation, 15 kHz to 10 GHzPer procurement specification
CS104Conducted Susceptibility, Antenna Port, Rejection of Undesired Signals, 30 Hz to 20 GHzPer procurement specification
CS105Conducted Susceptibility, Antenna Port, Cross-Modulation, 30 Hz to 20 GHzPer procurement specification
CS106Conducted Susceptibility, Transients, Power Leads400 V peakCS06 absent from E, added back.
CS109Conducted Susceptibility, Structure Current, 60 Hz to 100 kHz120 dBµA
CS114Conducted Susceptibility, Bulk Cable Injection, 10 kHz to 200 MHz109 dBµAAdds common mode test for some applications.
CS115Conducted Susceptibility, Bulk Cable Injection, Impulse Excitation5A x 30 ns
CS116Conducted Susceptibility, Damped Sinusoidal Transients, Cables and Power Leads, 10 kHz to 100 MHz10 A peakTesting with power off is deleted; procedure allows reduction of calibrated test signal if necessary.
RE101Radiated Emissions, Magnetic Field, 30 Hz to 100 kHz76 dBpT @ 7 cmTest procedure is modified to allow separations > 7cm where non-compliances are noted.
RE102Radiated Emissions, Electric Field, 10 kHz to 18 GHz24 dBµV/m @ 1mApplicability and frequency ranges modified. Rod antenna methods modified.
RE103Radiated Emissions, Antenna Spurious and Harmonic Outputs, 10 kHz to 40 GHz-80 dBc, far fieldMinor test procedure changes.
RS101Radiated Susceptibility, Magnetic Field, 30 Hz to 100 kHz180 dBpTScan rate is reduced.
RS103Radiated Susceptibility, Electric Field, 2 MHz to 40 GHz200 V/mSensor placement clarified; radiating antenna distance limited to > 1m.
RS105Radiated Susceptibility, Transient Electromagnetic Field50 kV/m peak

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