Price: $1,699.00

Course Number: 618
Length: 2 Days
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Why should you choose TONEX for your MPLS Training?

MPLS Training course provides an in-depth overview of MPLS technology, including MPLS theory, architecture, configuration, design issues, operations, troubleshooting, VPN, Traffic Engineering (TE), GMPLS (Generalized MPLS), MPLS-TP, and Seamless MPLS.

What is MPLS Technology?

Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is one of the central elements of next generation networks. It provides an IP-compatible, QoS-capable infrastructure that enables the convergence of voice, IP, ATM, Ethernet, and Frame Relay onto the same backbone network.

MPLS stands for “Multi-Protocol Label Switching”. MPLS is best summarized as a “Layer 2.5 networking protocol”. In the traditional OSI model:

  • Layer 2 covers protocols like Ethernet and SONET/SDH, which can carry IP packets, but only over simple LANs or point-to-point WANs.
  • Layer 3 covers Internet-wide addressing and routing using IP protocols.
  • MPLS sits between these traditional layers, providing additional features for the transport of data across the network.

How MPLS Works: Basic MPLS Concepts

  • MPLS Label Switched Path (“LSP”) is one of the most important concepts for the actual use of MPLS. LSP is essentially a unidirectional tunnel between a pair of routers, routed across an MPLS network.  The LSP is required for any MPLS forwarding to occur.
  • MPLS Router Roles/Positions: Label Edge Router (“LER”) or “ingress node” is the router which first encapsulates a packet inside an MPLS LSP. LER is the router which makes the initial path selection.
  • Label Switching Router (“LSR”) or “transit node” is the router which only does MPLS switching in the middle of an LSP. It is also called Egress Node or Egress Router. It is the final router at the end of an LSP, which removes the label.

MPLS can combine the intelligence and saleability of routing with the reliability and manageability of traditional carrier networks. It is the key to scalable virtual private networks (VPNs) and end-to-end quality of service (QoS).

Forwarding Equivalence Class (FEC) is a group of IP packets which are forwarded in the same manner (e.g., over the same path, with the same forwarding treatment)

A label in MPLS is a short fixed length physically contiguous identifier which is used to identify a FEC, usually of local significance.


How MPLS Works – Basic Concepts

  • MPLS router roles may also be expressed as “P” or “PE”:
  • Question 1: What are the terms “P” and “PE”?
  • Answer: “P” and “PE” are the terms which come from the description of VPN services.  “P” stands for Provider Router and “PE” stands for Provider Edge Router
  • A pure P router can operate without any customer/Internet routes at all.
  • This is common in large service provider networks.
  • A customer facing router which does label popping and imposition.
  • Typically has various edge features for terminating multiple services: Internet, L3VPN, L2VPN / Pseudowires and VPLS
  • Question 2: What is the term “CE”?
  • Answer: “CE” stands for the “Customer Edge”, the customer device a PE router talks to.

MPLS at IETF: Look at the Details of all the MPLS RFCs

The MPLS (Multiprotocol Label Switching) working group is responsible for standardizing a base technology for using label switching and for the implementation of label-switched paths over various packet based link-level technologies.  This includes procedures and protocols for the distribution of labels between routers and encapsulation

Who Should Attend

Anyone seeking a technical overview of MPLS.


  • List the features, functions and benefits of MPLS
  • Identify suitable applications for MPLS
  • Describe the underlying concepts of MPLS
  • Describe the frame-mode MPLS and cell-mode MPLS
  • Describe the concept of MPLS labels, label stack and different label formats
  • Describe the label distribution process between LSRs
  • Describe the loop detection and prevention mechanisms in MPLS
  • Explore the future trends of MPLS
  • GMPLS, MPLS-TP, Seamless MPLS and OTN


What is MPLS?

  • Challenges for new IP centric networks
  • Limitations of traditional IP networking
  • Achieving QoS
  • Understanding the fundamentals
  • Proprietary approaches to MPLS
  • IP Switching (Nokia), IP Navigator (Lucent), Tag Switching (Cisco)
  • Basic MPLS operation
  • MPLS Terminology
  • Forwarding Equivalence Class
  • Label encoding, distribution and binding
  • MPLS VPNTraffic Engineering (TE)

Label Distribution and signaling

  • Routing of LSPs
  • Label distribution methods
  • RSVP as a label distribution protocol
  • MPLS extensions to RSVP
  • Label distribution and binding with RSVP
  • The Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) and CR-LDP
  • LDP operation
  • Label Retention modes
  • Comparison of RSVP and LDP

MPLS Architecture

  • MPLS Operation
  • MPLS Node Architecture
  • MPLS Elements
  • Loop Survival, Detection, and Prevention in MPLS

A comparison of Frame Relay, ATM and MPLS

  • Integration of IP and ATM
  • Challenges Faced by Service Providers
  • Frame Relay and MPLS
  • Label Ranges and processing
  • Label Distribution
  • Hybrid Switches
  • Multipoint and VC merging
  • ATM and MPLS
  • Mapping to ATM QoS

MPLS Traffic Engineering (MPLS-TE)

  • Overview of Traffic Engineering
  • MPLS Traffic Engineering Elements
  • MPLS Traffic Engineering Configuration
  • LSP Path determination
  • Explicit routes and constraint based routing
  • Fast Re-routing: Taking account of Network Failures
  • MPLS deployment Edge or Core
  • ATM and Traffic Engineering
  • Unequal-Cost Load Balancing via Metric Manipulation
  • Advantages of MPLS Traffic Engineering

MPLS Virtual Private Networks (VPN)

  • Introducing Virtual Private Networks (VPNs)
  • MPLS VPN Architecture
  • MPLS VPN Routing Model
  • VPN Routing and Forwarding (VRF)
  • OSPF as the Routing Protocol Between PE and CE Routers
  • BGP as the Routing Protocol Between PE and CE Routers
  • EIGRP Between PE and CE Routers

Advanced MPLs topics

  • MPLS Design and Implementation
  • Implement MPLS TE
  • Real-world MPLS VPNs, TE, and QoS
  • Case studies and configuration examples
  • Network management issues
  • Multiprotocol Lambda Switching
  • MPLS VPN Architecture
  • Legacy L2 and L3 VPN Overview
  • Layer 3 IP VPNs
  • L3 VPN Services & Types
  • VRF’s, Route Distinguishers & Route Targets
  • BGP for MPLS L3 VPN
  • PE to CE Control Plane & Routing
  • RSVP Extention for MPLS TE
  • OSPF and IS-IS Enhancement for MPLS TE
  • Troubleshooting MPLS L3 VPNs

Generalized Multiprotocol Label Switching (GMPLS)

  • What is GMPLS?
  • Generalized MPLS (Formerly MPL(ambda)S)
  • Extension of the MPLS Control Plane
  • components of GMPLS
  • GMPLS Key Extensions to MPLS-TE
  • Routing and addressing model
  • Addressing of PSC and non-PSC layers
  • GMPLS salability enhancements
  • TE Extensions to IP routing protocols
  • Network Management
  • Security considerations

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