Price: $3,999.00

Course Number: 2232
Length: 4 Days
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NERC Certification Exam Preparation Training Program

NERC Certification Exam Preparation Training Program cover all four exams of System Operator Certification:

  • Reliability examination;
  • Balancing, Interchange, and Transmission examination;
  • Transmission examination; and
  • Balancing examination.

The System Operator Certification Program promotes skilled and qualified system operators to ensure the reliability of the Bulk Electric System (BES). The System Operator Certification Program provides the framework for operators to obtain initial certification in one of four NERC credentials: Reliability Operator; Balancing, Interchange, and Transmission Operator; Transmission Operator; and Balancing and Interchange Operator.

A system operator credential is a personal credential that NERC issues to a person for successfully passing a NERC System Operator Certification Exam. Each credential focuses on a specific functional area of system operations. Operators maintain each credential by accumulating a specified number of continuing education hours (CEHs) within a specified period of time.

The NERC System Operator Certification Program  prepares you for the exams including exam questions based on updated content outlines and the most current NERC Reliability Standards.

Training Topics include:

  • Preparing For The Exam
  • Exam Test Taking Key Points
  • Electric Utility Fundamentals
  • NERC Compliance Fundamentals
  • Grid Reliability Fundamentals
  • Understanding Key Elements of Balancing, Interchange and Transmission
  • Resource & Demand Balancing
  • SCADA, EMS, Communications and Data
  • Protection and Contingency Analysis and Reliability
  • Emergency Preparedness
  • Emergency Response Strategies and Perpetration

 

Certification Examination Content Outline

Reliability Coordinator Operator (RC)

RC KNOWLEDGE AREA
1 Resource and Demand Balancing
1.a Interchange Scheduling and Coordination
1.b Reserves (Spinning and Non-Spinning)
1.c Automatic Generation Control (AGC)
1.d Area Control Error (ACE)
1.e Frequency
1.f Load Forecasting
1.g Generation Equipment

2 Transmission
2.a Protection and Control
2.b Voltage and Reactive
2.c Electrical Current
2.d Reconfiguration and Switching
2.e Operating Limits
2.f Transmission Equipment

3 Emergency Preparedness
3.a Current and Next-Day Planning
3.b Severe Weather, Natural Disasters, and Geomagnetic Disturbances
3.c Anticipated Capacity Deficiency

4 Emergency Response
4.a System Restoration
4.b Response to System Disturbances
4.c Response to Capacity Emergencies
4.d Response to Loss of Control Center
4.e Response to Loss of Analysis and Monitoring Tools

5 Contingency Analysis and Reliability
5.a Contingency Analysis
5.b Network Analysis Tools (e.g. State Estimators)
5.c Response to Results of Contingency Analysis
5.d System Operating Limits (SOL)
5.e Interconnection Reliability Operating Limits (IROL)

6 Communications and Data
6.a Reporting Requirements
6.b Communication Methods (e.g. Three-Part Communication, RCIS)
6.c Data Validity and Verification
6.d Telemetry and Communications Equipment

Certification Examination Content Outline: Reliability Coordinator Operator (RC)

Tasks
1 Adjust flow control devices within the transmission area to maintain reliability.
2 Approve Arranged Interchange from ramping ability perspective.
3 Calculate and monitor area control error.
4 Curtail Confirmed Interchange that adversely impacts reliability.
5 Deploy reliability-related services.
6 Determine reliability-related services requirements for balancing generation and load, and transmission reliability.
7 Develop emergency procedures.
8 Develop Interconnection Reliability Operating Limits to protect from instability and Cascading.
9 Develop system limitations such as System Operating Limits and Total Transfer Capabilities, and operate within those limits.
10 Develop system restoration plans.
11 Direct and coordinate system restoration.
12 Direct implementation of emergency procedures including load shedding.
13 Direct revisions to generation maintenance plans as permitted by agreements.
14 Direct revisions to transmission maintenance plans as permitted by agreements.
15 Formulate an operational plan (generation commitment, outages, etc.) for reliability evaluation.
16 Identify, communicate, and direct actions if necessary to relieve reliability threats and limit violations.
17 Implement Confirmed Interchange.
18 Implement emergency procedures.
19 Implement system restoration plans.
20 Interpret actual and contingency reliability analyses.
21 Monitor and adjust reactive resources to maintain transmission voltage within defined limits.
22 Monitor and deploy transmission assets, protective relaying systems, and Special Protection Systems (SPS/RAS).
23 Monitor and report control performance and disturbance recovery.
24 Monitor and update all reliability-related parameters within the reliability area.
25 Monitor and update telemetry of reliability-related parameters within the reliability area.
26 Operate in the Balancing Authority Area to maintain load-interchange-generation balance.
27 Operate within established Interconnection Reliability Operating Limits.
28 Perform actual and contingency reliability analyses.
29 Provide balancing and energy accounting, and administer inadvertent energy paybacks.
30 Review generation commitments, dispatch, and load forecasts.

Balancing, Interchange, and Transmission Operator (BT)

BT KNOWLEDGE AREA

1 Resource and Demand Balancing
1.a Interchange Scheduling and Coordination
1.b Reserves (Spinning and Non-Spinning)
1.c Automatic Generation Control (AGC)
1.d Area Control Error (ACE)
1.e Frequency
1.f Load Forecasting
1.g Generation Equipment

2 Transmission
2.a Protection and Control
2.b Voltage and Reactive
2.c Electrical Current
2.d Reconfiguration and Switching
2.e Operating Limits
2.f Transmission Equipment

3 Emergency Preparedness
3.a Current and Next-Day Planning
3.b Severe Weather, Natural Disasters, and Geomagnetic Disturbances
3.c Anticipated Capacity Deficiency

4 Emergency Response
4.a System Restoration
4.b Response to System Disturbances
4.c Response to Capacity Emergencies
4.d Response to Loss of Control Center
4.e Response to Loss of Analysis and Monitoring Tools

5 Contingency Analysis and Reliability
5.a Contingency Analysis
5.b Network Analysis Tools (e.g. State Estimators)
5.c Response to Results of Contingency Analysis
5.d System Operating Limits (SOL)
5.e Interconnection Reliability Operating Limits (IROL)
6 Communications and Data
6.a Reporting Requirements
6.b Communication Methods (e.g. Three-Part Communication, RCIS)
6.c Data Validity and Verification
6.d Telemetry and Communications Equipment

Certification Examination Content Outline: Balancing, Interchange, and Transmission Operator (BT)

Tasks
1 Adjust flow control devices within the transmission area to maintain reliability.
2 Approve Arranged Interchange from ramping ability perspective.
3 Calculate and monitor area control error.
4 Curtail Confirmed Interchange that adversely impacts reliability.
5 Deploy reliability-related services.
6 Determine reliability-related services requirements for balancing generation and load, and transmission reliability.
7 Develop emergency procedures.
8 Develop Interconnection Reliability Operating Limits to protect from instability and Cascading.
9 Develop system limitations such as System Operating Limits and Total Transfer Capabilities, and operate within those limits.
10 Develop system restoration plans.
11 Direct and coordinate system restoration.
12 Direct implementation of emergency procedures including load shedding.
13 Direct revisions to generation maintenance plans as permitted by agreements.
14 Direct revisions to transmission maintenance plans as permitted by agreements.
15 Formulate an operational plan (generation commitment, outages, etc.) for reliability evaluation.
16 Identify, communicate, and direct actions if necessary to relieve reliability threats and limit violations.
17 Implement Confirmed Interchange.
18 Implement emergency procedures.
19 Implement system restoration plans.
20 Interpret actual and contingency reliability analyses.
21 Monitor and adjust reactive resources to maintain transmission voltage within defined limits.
22 Monitor and deploy transmission assets, protective relaying systems, and Special Protection Systems (SPS/RAS).
23 Monitor and report control performance and disturbance recovery.
24 Monitor and update all reliability-related parameters within the reliability area.
25 Monitor and update telemetry of reliability-related parameters within the reliability area.
26 Operate in the Balancing Authority Area to maintain load-interchange-generation balance.
27 Operate within established Interconnection Reliability Operating Limits.
28 Perform actual and contingency reliability analyses.
29 Provide balancing and energy accounting, and administer inadvertent energy paybacks.
30 Review generation commitments, dispatch, and load forecasts.

 

Balancing and Interchange Operator (BI)

BI KNOWLEDGE AREA

1 Resource and Demand Balancing
1.a Interchange Scheduling and Coordination
1.b Reserves (Spinning and Non-Spinning)
1.c Automatic Generation Control (AGC)
1.d Area Control Error (ACE)
1.e Frequency
1.f Load Forecasting
1.g Generation Equipment

2 Transmission
2.a Protection and Control
2.b Voltage and Reactive
2.c Electrical Current
2.d Reconfiguration and Switching
2.e Operating Limits
2.f Transmission Equipment

3 Emergency Preparedness
3.a Current and Next-Day Planning
3.b Severe Weather, Natural Disasters, and Geomagnetic Disturbances
3.c Anticipated Capacity Deficiency

4 Emergency Response
4.a System Restoration
4.b Response to System Disturbances
4.c Response to Capacity Emergencies
4.d Response to Loss of Control Center
4.e Response to Loss of Analysis and Monitoring Tools

5 Contingency Analysis and Reliability
5.a Contingency Analysis
5.b Network Analysis Tools (e.g., State Estimators)
5.c Response to Results of Contingency Analysis
5.d System Operating Limits (SOL)
5.e Interconnection Reliability Operating Limits (IROL)

6 Communications and Data
6.a Reporting Requirements
6.b Communication Methods (e.g., Three-Part Communication, RCIS)
6.c Data Validity and Verification
6.d Telemetry and Communications Equipment

Certification Examination Content Outline: Balancing and Interchange Operator (BI)

Tasks
1 Adjust flow control devices within the transmission area to maintain reliability.
2 Approve Arranged Interchange from ramping ability perspective.
3 Calculate and monitor area control error.
4 Curtail Confirmed Interchange that adversely impacts reliability.
5 Deploy reliability-related services.
6 Determine reliability-related services requirements for balancing generation and load, and transmission
reliability.
7 Develop emergency procedures.
8 Develop Interconnection Reliability Operating Limits to protect from instability and Cascading.
9 Develop system limitations such as System Operating Limits and Total Transfer Capabilities, and operate
within those limits.
10 Develop system restoration plans.
11 Direct and coordinate system restoration.
12 Direct implementation of emergency procedures including load shedding.
13 Direct revisions to generation maintenance plans as permitted by agreements.
14 Direct revisions to transmission maintenance plans as permitted by agreements.
15 Formulate an operational plan (generation commitment, outages, etc.) for reliability evaluation.
16 Identify, communicate, and direct actions if necessary to relieve reliability threats and limit violations.
17 Implement Confirmed Interchange.
18 Implement emergency procedures.
19 Implement system restoration plans.
20 Interpret actual and contingency reliability analyses.
21 Monitor and adjust reactive resources to maintain transmission voltage within defined limits.
22 Monitor and deploy transmission assets, protective relaying systems, and Special Protection Systems
(SPS/RAS).
23 Monitor and report control performance and disturbance recovery.
24 Monitor and update all reliability-related parameters within the reliability area.
25 Monitor and update telemetry of reliability-related parameters within the reliability area.
26 Operate in the Balancing Authority Area to maintain load-interchange-generation balance.
27 Operate within established Interconnection Reliability Operating Limits.
28 Perform actual and contingency reliability analyses.
29 Provide balancing and energy accounting, and administer inadvertent energy paybacks.
30 Review generation commitments, dispatch, and load forecasts.

Transmission Operator (TO)

TO KNOWLEDGE AREA
1 Resource and Demand Balancing
1.a Interchange Scheduling and Coordination
1.b Reserves (Spinning and Non-Spinning)
1.c Automatic Generation Control (AGC)
1.d Area Control Error (ACE)
1.e Frequency
1.f Load Forecasting
1.g Generation Equipment

2 Transmission
2.a Protection and Control
2.b Voltage and Reactive
2.c Electrical Current
2.d Reconfiguration and Switching
2.e Operating Limits
2.f Transmission Equipment

3 Emergency Preparedness
3.a Current and Next-Day Planning
3.b Severe Weather, Natural Disasters, and Geomagnetic Disturbances
3.c Anticipated Capacity Deficiency

4 Emergency Response
4.a System Restoration
4.b Response to System Disturbances
4.c Response to Capacity Emergencies
4.d Response to Loss of Control Center
4.e Response to Loss of Analysis and Monitoring Tools

5 Contingency Analysis and Reliability
5.a Contingency Analysis
5.b Network Analysis Tools (e.g. State Estimators)
5.c Response to Results of Contingency Analysis
5.d System Operating Limits (SOL)
5.e Interconnection Reliability Operating Limits (IROL)

6 Communications and Data
6.a Reporting Requirements
6.b Communication Methods (e.g. Three-Part Communication, RCIS)
6.c Data Validity and Verification
6.d Telemetry and Communications Equipment

Certification Examination Content Outline: Transmission Operator (TO)

Tasks
1 Adjust flow control devices within the transmission area to maintain reliability.
2 Approve Arranged Interchange from ramping ability perspective.
3 Calculate and monitor area control error.
4 Curtail Confirmed Interchange that adversely impacts reliability.
5 Deploy reliability-related services.
6 Determine reliability-related services requirements for balancing generation and load, and transmission reliability.
7 Develop emergency procedures.
8 Develop Interconnection Reliability Operating Limits to protect from instability and Cascading.
9 Develop system limitations such as System Operating Limits and Total Transfer Capabilities, and operate within those limits.
10 Develop system restoration plans.
11 Direct and coordinate system restoration.
12 Direct implementation of emergency procedures including load shedding.
13 Direct revisions to generation maintenance plans as permitted by agreements.
14 Direct revisions to transmission maintenance plans as permitted by agreements.
15 Formulate an operational plan (generation commitment, outages, etc.) for reliability evaluation.
16 Identify, communicate, and direct actions if necessary to relieve reliability threats and limit violations.
17 Implement Confirmed Interchange.
18 Implement emergency procedures.
19 Implement system restoration plans.
20 Interpret actual and contingency reliability analyses.
21 Monitor and adjust reactive resources to maintain transmission voltage within defined limits.
22 Monitor and deploy transmission assets, protective relaying systems, and Special Protection Systems (SPS/RAS).
23 Monitor and report control performance and disturbance recovery.
24 Monitor and update all reliability-related parameters within the reliability area.
25 Monitor and update telemetry of reliability-related parameters within the reliability area.
26 Operate in the Balancing Authority Area to maintain load-interchange-generation balance.
27 Operate within established Interconnection Reliability Operating Limits.
28 Perform actual and contingency reliability analyses.
29 Provide balancing and energy accounting, and administer inadvertent energy paybacks.
30 Review generation commitments, dispatch, and load forecasts.

——

NERC Certification

Examination Content OutlineTotal Scored QuestionsCut Score
Reliability Coordinator12089
Transmission Operator10074
Balancing, Interchange, and Transmission Operator12089
Balancing and Interchange Operator10074
NERC Continent-wide TermDefinition
Actual Frequency (FA)The Interconnection frequency measured in Hertz (Hz).
 

 

Actual Net Interchange (NIA)

 

The algebraic sum of actual megawatt transfers across all Tie Lines, including Pseudo-Ties, to and from all Adjacent Balancing Authority areas within the same Interconnection. Actual megawatt transfers on asynchronous DC tie lines that are directly connected to another Interconnection are excluded from Actual Net Interchange.

 

Adequacy

The ability of the electric system to supply the aggregate electrical demand and energy

requirements of the end-use customers at all times, taking into account scheduled and reasonably expected unscheduled outages of system elements.

Adjacent Balancing AuthorityA Balancing Authority whose Balancing Authority Area is interconnected with another Balancing Authority Area either directly or via a multi-party agreement or transmission tariff.
 

Adverse  Reliability Impact

The impact of an event that results in frequency-related instability; unplanned tripping of load

or generation; or uncontrolled separation or cascading outages that affects a widespread area of  the Interconnection.

After the FactATFA time classification assigned to an RFI when the submittal time is greater than one hour after the start time of the RFI.
 

Agreement

 

A contract or arrangement, either written or verbal and sometimes enforceable by law.

Alternative Interpersonal CommunicationAny Interpersonal Communication that is able to serve as a substitute for, and does not utilize the same infrastructure (medium) as, Interpersonal Communication used for day-to-day

operation.

 

 

Altitude  Correction Factor

A multiplier applied to specify distances, which adjusts the distances to account for the change  in relative air density (RAD) due to altitude from the RAD used to determine the specified distance.   Altitude correction factors apply to both minimum worker approach distances and    to  minimum vegetation  clearance distances.
 

Ancillary Service

Those services that are necessary to support the transmission of capacity and energy from resources to loads while maintaining reliable operation of the Transmission Service Provider’s transmission system in accordance with good utility practice. (From FERC order 888-A. )
 

Anti-Aliasing Filter

An analog filter installed at a metering point to remove the high frequency components of the signal over the AGC sample  period.
 

 

Area Control Error

 

 

ACE

The instantaneous difference between a Balancing Authority’s net actual and scheduled interchange, taking into account the effects of Frequency Bias, correction for meter error, and Automatic Time Error Correction (ATEC), if operating in the ATEC mode. ATEC is only applicable to Balancing Authorities in the Western Interconnection.

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