Length: 4 Days
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RF Applied to Electromagnetic Warfare

Radio frequency (RF) is the key ingredient applied to electromagnetic warfare.

RF is a measurement representing the oscillation rate of electromagnetic radiation spectrum, or electromagnetic radio waves, from frequencies ranging from 300 gigahertz (GHz) to as low as 9 kilohertz (kHz).

Electromagnetic Warfare, more commonly known as Electronic Warfare (EW), is defined by the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) as any military action involving the use of electromagnetic and directed energy to control the electromagnetic spectrum or to attack the enemy.

With electronic warfare increasingly becoming more competitive, several RF and microwave components have been developed over the years, both to either enhance the ability for the electronic attack on an enemy or to assure more protection from electronic attack from an outside source.

One important subcomponent system is WISDEM (Wideband Intelligent RF Spectrum Exploits and Monitoring) that offers real-time monitoring and characterization of the RF spectrum for a higher probability of detecting the opponent’s signals.

Another, known as High Powered Tunable Agile RF Filters, removes harmful interference from Signal Intelligence (SIGINT) frequencies or communication data during an electronic attack. These filters offer more than 100dB of in-band attenuation and their efficiency has been validated in both the US Army and US Navy electronic warfare labs.

Then there’s Predistortion-Based Amplifier Linearization Module (PALM) that removes harmful interference from communication Data or SIGINT frequencies. It is a signal-agnostic linearization module that’s attached to an RF high power amplifier that’s operable in UHF, VHF, HF, and even low microwave spectrums.

One especially useful subcomponent system is SEWIP (Shipboard Electronic Warfare Suite). This protects the electromagnetic spectrum from any interference during an attack by removing RF power in selected bands.

The basis of electromagnet warfare  is a radio frequency (RF) weapon using radio waves at power levels high enough to cause electrical disruption.

Microwaves (high-frequency radio waves) are usually preferred, so this type of device is sometimes called a High-Powered Microwave, or HPM weapon.

Radio frequency weapons also overlap with electromagnetic pulse, or EMP weapons, which emit a powerful burst of radio waves in all directions. Though most forms of electronic warfare refer to disruption or interception of electromagnetic signals, there are some formats like electromagnetic pulses that work in a way very similar to that of conventional explosives.

Unlike jammers, which just interfere with the signal received by radios or radar, radio frequency weapons do actual damage.

They do this by two methods:

  • Front door coupling – This is where radio waves are picked by the antennas and aerials normally used for receiving
  • Back door coupling – This is where wires inside the electronics act as receivers

Either way, the effect of an extremely powerful pulse is to put far more current through a component than it can handle.

RF especially figures prominently in electronic attack, which is a major category of EW. This is the capability of a military to launch attacks on the opponent to disrupt, deny, destroy or deceive their electronics infrastructure.

RF Applied to Electromagnetic Warfare Course by Tonex

RF applied to Electromagnetic Warfare training course is a 4-day training program that provides a deep understanding of the RF principles applied Electromagnetic Warfare (EW) systems. Electronic Warfare (EW) represents the ability to use the electromagnetic spectrum and variety of different signals including radio, microwave, EO/IR (electro Optical/Infrared) and radar to sense, protect, and communicate. Electromagnetic Warfare (EW) can also be used to deny adversaries the ability to either disrupt or use these signals.

EW is divided into three (3) major areas: Electronic Attack, Electronic Support and Electronic Protection.

Through lectures, discussions and hands-on lab using spectrum analyzer and logic analyzer participants will learn about RF principles, electromagnetic waves, propagation, and antenna principles applied to radar systems and operation, radar-enabled weapons, jamming and interference principles, Electronic Attack, disrupt, deny, degrade, destroy, or deceive, Electronic Protection, preventing a receiver from being jammed or deceived and Electronic Support, sensing of the electromagnetic spectrum, EW RF threat modeling and simulation,  and EW concepts and application in TDLs such as Link 16, TTNT, Link 22, VMF and more. Tonex instructors will bring spectrum and logic analyzers, oscilloscopes, antennas and more.

In the air, on land, and at sea, advanced technologies to control the electromagnetic spectrum, and disruptive technologies to outpace adversary threats are key topics covered in this course: Naval Electronic Warfare, Surface Electronic Warfare, Ground Electronic Warfare, Airborne Electronic Warfare, Cyber Electronic Warfare, functional capabilities that provide real-time situational awareness, enabling principles to intercept signals that identify both imminent and potential threats. Adding layers to defense, countermeasure technologies use EW to protect against missile attacks. Tonex course build knowledge and skills in EW and protection, platform development and integration, that includes electronic warfare systems, electronic support measure (ESM), phased array radars, radar warning receiver (RWR), electronic intelligence, communications intelligence, and anti-jam GPS products.

The key to success lies not only in the capability of the systems, but also cross-domain technologies and integration of those systems across platforms to offer a complete picture of the battle space and unimpeded use of the electromagnetic spectrum for the warfighter.

 Delivery Method

  • Lectures
  • Discussions
  • Group Activities
  • Hands on Labs (Participants will make their own antennas in the class; Tonex provides the tools and the material)
  • Demonstrations
  • Workshops

Learning objectives

Upon completion of this course, participants will learn about:

  • Fundamentals of Electromagnetic Energy
  • Key RF Principles RF Math and Theory of Operation
  • RF Propagation, Electronic and Signal Intelligence (ELINT/SIGINT)
  • Principles of Naval, Surface, Ground, Airborne, Cyber and Electronic Warfare
  • Basic RF Electronic Warfare (EW) Principles
  • Radar Operation, Equations and Radar Cross Section (RCS)
  • Basics of RF Jamming Applied to Electronic Warfare (EW)
  • Advanced RF Concepts Applied to Electronic Warfare
  • Low Probability of Intercept/Low Probability of Detection (LPI/LPD)
  • Low-Probability-of-Intercept Radar (LPIR) Operation
  • Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) Mitigation Techniques
  • Basic concepts of electromagnetic field theory
  • Basics of radar cross section, including its generation and reduction
  • Basic radar functions and signal processing
  • How radars track and guide weapons to a target
  • How electronic attack affects the victim receivers
  • Challenges in the design and implementation of EW receivers

Who Should Attend?

  • Technical personnel
  • Electronic warfare or radar system planning, design, development,
  • operations and maintenance
  • Electrical engineers
  • Software engineers
  • System engineers
  • System analysts
  • Cyber security professionals
  • Verification and validation personnel
  • Project managers
  • Program managers

Course Outline/Syllabus

Basics of RF Principles

  • Basics of Radio Frequency (RF) and Electromagnetic Spectrum (EM)
  • Electromagnetic radiation
  • Overview of RF spectrum
  • Frequency vs. wavelength
  • Overview of RF Propagation
  • Free space propagation & path loss
  • Diffraction, wave bending, ducting
  • Multipath propagation
  • Multipath fading
  • Rayleigh fading
  • Attenuation vs. frequencies
  • Rain attenuations
  • RF engineering principles
  • Modulation
  • Coding
  • Antenna theory
  • Principles of spread spectrum
  • Frequency-Hopping (FH) signals
  • Chirp signals
  • Direct-Sequence Spread-Spectrum (DSSS) signals
  • Emitter location Interference analysis
  • Link design
  • Principles of noise and interference
  • Principles of jamming
  • Communications control and jamming
  • A Basic RF system
  • Block diagram of a radio link
  • Basic RF considerations
  • RF math and calculation
  • RF link budget calculations
  • Link budget labs

Characteristics of RF Radiation

  • Frequency
  • Wavelength
  • Polarization
  • Doppler Effect
  • Electromagnetic Spectrum
  • RF Propagation
  • Radar Principles
  • Radar Range
  • Radar Types
  • Radar Signal Characteristics
  • Radar Receiver Characteristics
  • Duty Cycle
  • Peak Power
  • Average Power
  • Modulation

Principles of Radars (RAdio Detection And Ranging)

  • Radar Block Diagram
  • Transmitter
  • Pulse Compression
  • Tracking
  • Antenna
  • Propagation
  • Processing A / D
  • Waveform
  • Generator
  • Detection
  • Signal Processor
  • Antenna
  • Synchronizer
  • Radar Functions
  • Normal radar functions
  • Signature analysis and inverse scattering
  • Transmitter
  • Radar observables
  • Target range
  • Target angles (azimuth & elevation)
  • Target size (radar cross section)
  • Target speed (Doppler)
  • Target features (imaging)
  • Radar EW simulation and analysis
  • Jamming equations

Introduction To Radar Jamming                                                 

  • Radar Noise Jamming
  • Deception Jamming
  • Decoys
  • Chaff Employment
  • EO/IR Fundamentals
  • Countermeasures
  • Radar Electronic Protection (Ep) Techniques
  • Radar Receiver Protection
  • Jamming Signal Avoidance
  • Jamming Signal Exploitation
  • Overpowering The Jamming Signal
  • Pulse Duration Discrimination
  • Angle Discrimination
  • Doppler Discrimination
  • Time Discrimination
  • Radar Warning Receiver (RWR)
  • Self-protection Jamming System Operations

Introduction to Electronic Warfare (EW)

  • Overview of EW signals: radio and EO/IR
  • Electronic Warfare architecture
  • RF electronic warfare
  • Electromagnetic Environment (EME)
  • Electronic Order of Battle (EOB)
  • Electronic Attack (EA)
  • Electronic Protection (EP)
  • Electronic Warfare Support (ES)
  • Electronic Counter Measures (ECM)
  • Jamming and chaff
  • Defensive ECM (DECM)
  • Electronic counter-counter measures (ECCM)
  • Radar Warning Receiver (RWR)
  • Jammers and EW transmitter
  • Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance (ISR) and EW
  • Electronic Intelligence (ELINT)
  • Signals Intelligence (SIGINT)
  • Measurement and Signatures Intelligence (MASINT)
  • Communications Intelligence (COMINT)
  • Direction finding
  • Electronic Warfare Support Measures (ESM)
  • RF jamming
  • Intermodulation
  • Labs: EW and spectrum analyzers

Principles of Modern and Emerging Radar Systems

  • Radar, EW and ELINT signal simulation Radar
  • Target Applications
  • Radar systems
  • Basic Radar Equation
  • Radar Cross Section (RCS)
  • Search and tracking radars
  • Electromagnetic countermeasures
  • Polarization
  • Doppler Effect
  • Radar Signal Characteristics
  • Radar Receiver Characteristics
  • Radar System Components
  • Antenna characteristics and scans
  • Phased Array Radars
  • Radar Warning Receiver (RWR)
  • Basic Operations and Geolocation Techniques
  • Decoys and Chaffs
  • Saturation Decoys
  • Towed Decoys
  • Expendable Active Decoys
  • Chaff Employment
  • Chaff Characteristics
  • Chaff Operational Employment
  • EO/IR Fundamentals
  • Radar EW Simulation and Analysis
  • Labs: Analyzing radar signals with spectrum analyzer

Advanced RF Electronic Warfare Concepts

  • Radar signal processing
  • Receiving systems
  • Analysis of RF applied to radar systems
  • Millimeter Signal Measurements:
  • Photonics in EW Application
  • EW Best Practices
  • Analysis of EW and Link 16, Link 22, TTNT and VMF
  • Software-Defined Radio (SDR) Applied
  • Special coverage on Jamming Techniques and Electronic Protection
  • Working with Spectrum Analyzers and Basic Radar Systems
  • Analysis of antenna systems
  • Gain, transmitted power, gain, bandwidth, radiation pattern, beamwidth, polarization,
  • VSWR, Return Loss and impedance
  • Physical parameters
  • Electrical parameters
  • Beamwidth (in radians or degrees)
  • Radiation Pattern
  • Antenna radiation patterns
  • Polarization
  • Labs: building and testing antennas (Tonex provides the material and tools)

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