Aquatic Chemistry Training For Non-Chemists
The aquatic chemistry for non-chemists training course covers the principals and basics of chemistry, physics, and thermodynamics associated with fresh water.
In order to study methods for treating the drinking water, water pollution causes in lakes, methods of designing water supply systems, or any other water-based system, first you need to know the nature of the water, the thermodynamics principals, and the equilibrium calculations of water. The aquatic chemistry for non-chemists training course gives you sufficient review about thermodynamics of water and teaches you how to calculate equilibrium equations related to water.
What is water? Water, aka H2O, is a polar molecule with positive charge around the hydrogen and negative charge around the oxygen. Although the charges are very tiny, they are sensitive enough to affect all the chemistry and properties of the water molecule. Besides, the polar nature of the water is the reason why polar compounds do and non-polar molecules don’t dissolve in water. Also, whether (or not) a surface of a molecule is hydrophobic or hydrophilic depends on the polar characteristic of the water. In the aquatic chemistry for non-chemists training course, we will discuss the chemistry of water in regards to what is dissolved in it.
Another key parameter should be studied under the topic of water chemistry would be pH. In the molecular scale, water is not a homogenous mixture of H2O molecules. Water molecules ionize into H+ and OH– ions. The number of H+ ions determines the pH value of the water. Under standard condition, i.e. room temperature and atmospheric pressure, the number of these ions in one liter of pure water is equal to 10-7. pH, which is the logarithm of H+ concentration, would be 7 in this case. During the aquatic chemistry for non-chemists training course, our instructors will make sure you are thoroughly familiar with all calculations and details about pH value.
Once you learn about pH, we will introduce you to acids/bases concept. Acids decrease and bases increase the pH of a solution. What happens is they split the water ions and release free H+ in the solution, lowering pH below 7. In contrary, bases release free OH– in the solution, resulting in pH values greater than 7. Depending on their strength, acids and bases can vary pH values of solutions. As we stated before, in order to measure the effect of acids/bases on the pH of a solution, we need to measure the H– concentration. If the H– concentration is increased after adding a substance, that substance is acidic; if the H– concentration is decreased, the substance is basic. PH meters, electronic devices that use electrodes to measure the electrical characteristics of a solution, do such measurements. In the aquatic chemistry for non-chemists training course, you will learn how to calculate pH values for various acidic and basic solutions. Our instructors will also introduce you to buffers. The presence of buffers in a solution will prevents significant changes in pH value after adding strong acids/bases to the system.
Next topic you need to know when study aquatic chemistry would be salinity. Water is pure in itself, but it dissolves various sorts of chemicals from soil and rocks on its way to the oceans. Such process, which is called weathering, will increase the salinity content of the water. Once water is in the ocean, the only way it leaves would be evaporation through which all the salts and impurities stay behind and only molecule of pure water will evaporate. Over time, the accumulation of the salts will cause the salinity of the ocean to increase. This is why the water of the oceans are much more saline than the freshwater of lakes and rivers, where water flows in and out. In smaller scales, in any place where water only flows in and is not allowed to flow out, the salinity can increase over time. For example, your household pots or your aquarium can become salty and endanger your plants or fish if you don’t periodically remove the water. As you may notice, we use the term of “salty” for these types of water because the contaminants are mostly dissolved salts, ionic substances split into positive and negative ions in water. However, because the number of positive ions and negatives ones are equal, the pH value of water wouldn’t change. While these salts don’t affect pH reading, they greatly affect the electrical conductivity of the water. Therefore, our instructors at TONEX will not only thoroughly cover the salinity term and the calculations associated with it, but also discuss conductivity as well.
In addition to solid compounds such as salts, gaseous substances such as O2 and CO2 can be dissolved in water, too. The reason why it is crucial for you to learn about these components is because they affect the ecosystem, organisms, plants, and even human’s health. While the atmosphere contains 21% oxygen and only 0.033% carbon dioxide, their solubility in water is different. Three major factors can decrease the solubility of gases in water; increasing temperature, decreasing pressure, and increasing salinity. One crucial concept related to the oxygen level of the water is BOD and COD, biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand respectively. BOD is the amount of oxygen that can be consumed by organisms and simple chemical reactions. BOD is measured experimentally and COD will be calculated from the BOD. The BOD/OD of drinking water must meet the EPA standards for drinking water and also different types of wastewater have to have certain BOD levels before their release. Through the aquatic chemistry for non-chemists training course, you will learn how to calculate the concentration of O2, CO2, BOD, and COD of the water.
The aquatic chemistry for non-chemists training course is also designed to introduce you to acid-base, reduction-oxidation, precipitation-dissolution, and titration reactions.
In the aquatic chemistry for non-chemists training course, we also gives you a brief overview of potential pollutants might exist in water, how to identify them, and how to test them. This part is particularly useful to you if you wish to study pollutions in lakes, basins, water and wastewater treatment facilities, and other fresh-water systems.
Who Should Attend?
The aquatic chemistry for non-chemists training is a 2-day course designed for:
- All non-chemist individuals who are or will be involved in studying water-based systems for various purposes
- Technicians working in water analysis labs
- Technicians, operators, managers, and other individuals who don’t have the chemistry background but working at water treatment facilities or other facilities related to water
What Will You Learn?
Below are the major topics we will cover in the aquatic chemistry for non-chemists training course (detailed outline can be found under the course full description):
- Overview of Aquatic Chemistry
- Water Quality Parameters
- Thermodynamics and Equilibrium
- Acid-Base Principals
- Solid Dissolution and Precipitation
- Oxidation-Reduction Principals
- Water Quality Analysis
- Sampling Locations
- Microbiology of Water
- Microbial Testing Methods
- Physical Testing Methods
- Chemical Testing Methods