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Introduction to 802.11be,  WiFi 7 Training

Wi-Fi technology is surging and is expected to be one of the most widespread technologies in the world and represents a crucial point in the daily and business lives of billions of people.

By the end of 2018, there were an estimated 22 billion IoT devices connected around the world. Forecasts suggest that by 2030 around 50 billion of these IoT devices will be connected around the world, creating a massive web of interconnected devices spanning everything from smartphones to kitchen appliances.

More connected devices mean higher levels of Wi-Fi congestion. The pandemic has shown how the amount of data on Wi-Fi networks has reached critical levels: wireless bandwidth and capacity have never been greater.

This was the impetus behind Wi-Fi 6 (802.11ax), the current standard established by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE). The first improvement of Wi-Fi 6 technology was basically more capacity.

And yet, there’s already another Wi-Fi itineration on the horizon, Wi-Fi 7 (802.11be), expected to be available to consumers by 2024.

Some of the advances Wi-Fi 7 will offer include:

  • 320 MHz bandwidth and more efficient utilization of non-contiguous spectrum
  • Multi-band/multi-channel aggregation and operation
  • 16 spatial streams and Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) protocols enhancements
  • 4096-QAM (4K-QAM)
  • Multi-Access Point (AP) Coordination
  • Enhanced link adaptation and retransmission protocol (e.g., Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (HARQ))
  • Enhanced resource allocation in OFDMA
  • Integrating Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) extensions for low-latency real-time traffic (IEEE 802.11aa)

With speeds as high as 30 gigabits per second, the next generation of Wi-Fi promises better streaming video, longer range and fewer problems with traffic congestion. Also on tap for 802.11be is the ability to send data on multiple frequencies at the same time.

Introduction to 802.11be,  WiFi 7 Training Course by Tonex

Introduction to 802.11be, WiFi 7 Training, is a  2-day technical course covering 802.11be amendment. 802.11be training, designated as WiFi 7 is  the next significant milestone in the Wi-Fi long-term success story providing extremely high throughput and supporting real-time applications.

802.11be: Standard for Information technology–Telecommunications and information exchange between systems Local and metropolitan area networks–Specific requirements – Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications Amendment: Enhancements for Extremely High Throughput (EHT).

IEEE 802.11be Extremely High Throughput (EHT) is the next generation of the 802.11 IEEE standard designated as Wi-Fi 7.  It is built upon 802.11ax, focusing on WLAN indoor and outdoor operation with stationary and pedestrian speeds in the 2.4, 5 and 6 GHz frequency bands.

The main features of 802.11be are:

  • 320 MHz bandwidth and more efficient utilization of non-contiguous spectrum,
  • Multi-band/multi-channel aggregation and operation,
  • 16 spatial streams and Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) protocols enhancements,
  • Multi-Access Point (AP) Coordination (e.g. coordinated and joint transmission),
  • Enhanced link adaptation and retransmission protocol (e.g. Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (HARQ)),
  • If needed, adaptation to regulatory rules specific to 6 GHz spectrum,
  • Integrating Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) extensions for low-latency real-time traffic (IEEE 802.11aa).
  • Additional features include 4096-QAM (4K-QAM), Contiguous and non-contiguous 320/160+160 MHz and 240/160+80 MHz bandwidth, Frame formats with improved forward-compatibility, Enhanced resource allocation in OFDMA, Optimized channel sounding that requires less airtime, Implicit channel sounding, More flexible preamble puncturing scheme and Support of direct links, managed by an access point.

Wi-Fi 6 and WiFi 6E have already provided massive increases in speed and great improvements showing speeds two or three times greater than Wi-Fi 5.  Wi-Fi 7 will use the new 6GHz band in addition to 2.4GHz and 5GHz. 6GHz Wi-Fi steps this up even further, creating 14 new 80MHz channels and seven new 160MHz. The introduction of these channels and the existing network capacity should drastically increase data throughput in congested areas.

Uplink technology of WiFi 7 brings better uplink capabilities through an advanced form of MU-MIMO that will be called UL MU-MIMO. CMU-MIMO allows mesh networking between all kinds of antennas to enable widespread MU-MIMO connections. Multi-band data management allows access to three fully separate bands – 2.4, 5, and 6GHz. Wi-Fi 7 improves support for applications that require deterministic latency, high reliability and quality of service (QoS). In addition, Wi-Fi 7 will be optimized for video applications, which will prove valuable in the enterprise space, but also inside homes for use cases like gaming, streaming and other smart-home devices and services.

Wi-Fi 7 will also bring lower latency, maximum data rate – 46 Gbps, although higher data rates may be achieved in some environments and configurations, as well as increased flexibility in using network and spectrum resources.

Topics Covered

Overview of Wi-Fi Evolution

  • Legacy: 11 (1997), Wi-Fi 3: 11g (2003), Wi-Fi 2: 11a (1999), Wi-Fi 1: 11b (1999), and Wi-Fi 4: 11n (2009)
  • Wi-Fi 5: 11ac (2013)
  • Wi-Fi 6: 11ax (2019)
  • Wi-Fi 6E: 11ax-2021 (2021)
  • WiFi 7: 802.11be
  • 6GHz Wi-Fi
  • Overview of Automated Frequency Coordination (AFC)

Overview of Wi-Fi 7  

  • EEE 802.11be standard, Wi-Fi 7
  • Wi-Fi 7 focuses on physical (PHY) and medium access control (MAC) improvements
  • Support reduced latency and jitter for time sensitive networking applications
  • AR/VR, 4K and 8K video streaming, automotive, cloud computing, gaming and video applications
  • Mission critical and industrial applications
  • Wi-Fi 7 backward compatibility and coexistence with legacy devices in the 2.4, 5, and 6 GHz spectrum bands
  • 802.11be vs. 802.11ax
  • WiFi 6E vs. WiFi 7
  • 802.11be: extremely high throughput, 4096 QAM, 320 MHz, MU-MIMO, time-sensitive
  • networking, multi-link operation, implicit sounding, and distributed MU-MIMO, EHT PHY
  • 320 MHz bandwidth
  • Impact of 4K-QAM
  • EDCA With 802 TSN features
  • Enhanced OFDMA
  • Preamble Puncturing
  • Multi-Link Operation
  • Multi-Link Channel Access
  • Multi-RU
  • OFDMA With Direct Link
  • OFDMA for RTA
  • Multi-Link Operation
  • High orders of MU-MIMO and OFDMA
  • Advanced PHY Techniques Improving Spectrum Efficiency
  • Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (HARQ), FD operation, and Non-orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA)
  • Multi-AP Cooperation
  • MU-MIMO
  • EDCA With 802 TSN Features
  • Latency Analysis for EHT
  • EDCA Improvements
  • Overview of TSN
  • Multi-Link Power Save
  • Multi-Link Operation for RTA
  • Channel Sounding Optimization

Advanced PHY Techniques Improving Spectrum Efficiency

  • Full-Duplex
  • Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA)
  • Multi-AP Cooperation
  • Coordinated Spatial Reuse (CSR)
  • 11ax SR vs. CSR
  • Coordinated OFDMA (Co-OFDMA)
  • Null Steering
  • Joint Transmission and Reception
  • Channel Sounding Optimization
  • Channel Sounding Induced Overhead
  • Sounding Enhancements
  • Explicit Feedback Overhead Reduction
  • Implicit Sounding
  • Trigger-Based UL Sounding Sequence
  • Example of multi-AP sounding protocol
  • Collecting Acknowledgments
  • Example of OFDMA+MIMO transmission in 802.11be.
  • Asynchronous (top) vs. synchronous (bottom) multi-link operation
  • Duplicate Mode and Joint Mode

New Features in Wi-Fi 7

  • Wi-Fi 7 Application Scenarios
  • Throughput to 30 Gbps +
  • Low-latency access
  • Up to 320 MHz Bandwidth
  • Multi-RU
  • Higher-Order 4096-QAM
  • Multi-Link Operation (MLO)
  • More Data Streams and Enhanced MIMO
  • Multi-AP Coordination320 MHz bandwidth and more efficient utilization of non-contiguous spectrum
  • Multi-band/multi-channel aggregation and operation
  • 16 spatial streams and Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) protocols enhancements
  • Multi-Access Point (AP) Coordination (e.g. coordinated and joint transmission)
  • Enhanced link adaptation and retransmission protocol (e.g. Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (HARQ))

Wi-Fi CERTIFIED 6™

  • A-MPDU with A-MSDU
  • Basic Trigger frame in HE MU PPDU
  • BSRP Trigger frame
  • Compressed BlockACK Rx
  • Compressed BlockACK Tx
  • DL MU-MIMO
  • DL OFDMA
  • LDPC Rx
  • LDPC Tx
  • MCS 8-9 Rx
  • MCS 8-9 Tx
  • MCS 10-11 Rx
  • MCS 10-11 Tx
  • MU EDCA Parameter Set element
  • MU-BAR Trigger frame
  • MU-RTS Trigger frame
  • Multi-BSSID
  • Operating Mode
  • SU beamformer
  • TXOP RTS Threshold
  • UL OFDMA
  • TWT

Wi-Fi CERTIFIED 6E

  • Wi-Fi 6E and 6 GHz operations
  • What Is 6GHz Wi-Fi?
  • Wi-Fi 6E: Expanding Wi-Fi into 6 GHz spectrum
  • Global harmonization of 6 GHz spectrum
  • Wi-Fi 6E Highlights
  • Key capabilities
  • Orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA)
  • Multi-user multiple input, multiple output (multi-user MIMO)
  • 160 MHz channel utilization capability
  • Target wake time (TWT)
  • 1024 quadrature amplitude modulation mode (1024-QAM)

Overview of a WiFi 6E Certified Product Example (Wi-Fi Alliance)

  • 4 GHz Spectrum Capabilities
  • 5 GHz Spectrum Capabilities
  • 6 GHz Spectrum Capabilities
  • Wi-Fi CERTIFIED 6E™
  • Wi-Fi CERTIFIED 6™
  • Wi-Fi CERTIFIED™ a
  • Wi-Fi CERTIFIED™ ac
  • Wi-Fi CERTIFIED™ b
  • Wi-Fi CERTIFIED™ g
  • Wi-Fi CERTIFIED™ n
  • Wi-Fi Enhanced Open™ 2021-01

WiFi 6E Security

  • Protected Management Frames
  • WPA2™-Enterprise 2018-04
  • WPA2™-Personal 2021-01
  • WPA3™-Enterprise 2020-02
  • WPA3™-Personal 2019-08
  • WPA™-Enterprise
  • WPA™-Personal

Introduction to 802.11be, WiFi 7 Training

 

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