Price: $3,999.00

Length: 4 Days
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Satellite Communications Training for non-engineers

You don’t need to be an engineer to appreciate the engineering that goes into putting satellites in space.

There are currently nearly 5,000 satellites in orbit. Almost all of them got there the same way – a satellite launch vehicle (SLV) known as a carrier rocket.

An SLV is classed by NASA according to low Earth orbit payload capability:

  • Small-lift launch vehicles are less than 4,400 pounds.
  • Medium-lift launch vehicles are 4,400 to 44,100 pounds
  • Heavy-lift launch vehicles are 44,000 to 110,000 pounds
  • Super-heavy lift vehicles are more than 110,000 pounds

In every case, the orbital satellite is packed carefully onto the satellite launch vehicle. Then, powered by a rocket engine, the carrier rocket with its satellite payload must travel at speeds of at least 4.9 miles per second to overcome Earth’s gravitational forces and reach orbit altitude.

Like most areas of technology, depth of understanding usually has its genesis in definition of terms. This is certainly true with satellite communications. It’s especially important to know two terms:

  • Geosynchronous
  • Geostationary

A high-Earth orbit is called geosynchronous if the satellite is synchronized with Earth’s rotation. But a geostationary orbit is, as the name implies, when a satellite stays over the same point on Earth all the time. Communication satellites are often placed in a geostationary orbit so that Earth-based satellite antennas do not have to rotate to track them, but can be pointed permanently at the position in the sky where the satellites are located.

Weather satellites are also placed in this orbit for real time monitoring and data collection, as well as navigation satellites to provide a known calibration point and enhance GPS accuracy.

Geostationary satellites are launched from as close to the equator as possible to provide the maximum launch boost and to limit the amount of inclination change needed later. Satellites in geostationary orbit must all occupy a single ring above the equator.

Basically there are three types of satellite orbits:

  1. Low – These are often scientific satellites that tend to be quite close to Earth, often just a few hundred kilometers up and follow an almost circular path called a low-Earth orbit (LEO).
  2. Medium – A medium-Earth orbit (MEO) is about 10 times higher up than a LEO. GPS satellites are in MEO orbits roughly 20,000 km (12,000 miles) above our heads and take 12 hours to “loop” the planet. Their orbits are semi-synchronous, which means that, while they’re not always exactly in the same place above our heads, they pass above the same points on the equator at the same times each day.
  3. High – Typical of communication satellites, these satellites have orbits at a carefully chosen distance of about 36,000 km (22,000 miles) from the surface. This position ensures they take exactly one day to orbit Earth and always return to the same position above it, at the same time of day. Satellites with geosynchronous or geostationary orbits are found here.

Certain frequency bands have been dedicated for satellite use for many decades by the body responsible for managing the radio spectrum, the International Telecommunications Union. Different frequency bands are suitable for different climate conditions, types of service and types of users.

For example, satellite television and radio broadcasting services use the S-band (1.97 GHz to 2.69 GHz), civilian mobile satellite services use the L-band (1.518 GHz to 1.675 GHz), and high-speed broadband services use the Q/V bands (37.5 GHz to 51.4 GHz).

Satellite Communications Training for non-engineers Course by Tonex

This course is designed to provide a general technical overview of Satellite Communications and GMR-1 family of technologies for non-technical professionals including sales, marketing, product managers, finance, project and program managers, and executive management.

Course Objectives

  • General understanding satellite communications theory at a technician level
  • General understanding of GMR-1
  •  Compare satellite, wireless, wired, and fiber communications and their preferred applications
  • Describe spacecraft physical size, payloads, transponders, antennas, lifetime
  • Describe typical launch vehicles; Compare LEO, MEO, and GEO orbits
  • List the frequencies bands used for satellite communications
  • Describe the concepts of links, link budgets, and how they are affected by dish size
  • Define qualitatively EIRP, G/T, footprints, and contours
  • Describe the main properties of microwaves and how signals are affected by blockage
  • Define rain fade loss, rain zones, availability
  • Explain solar outages
  • Describe the high-level operation of a satellite transponder
  • Compare the main types of antennas used for earth stations
  • Define amplitude, frequency, decibels, gain, EIRP, spectrum, symbol rate, bandwidth, noise, power, C/N, and Eb/No
  • Define modulation and demodulation
  • Describe and compare BPSK, QPSK, and 8PSK
  • Define and describe SCPC, TDM, TDMA, MF-TDMA, DVB, DVB-RCS, star, and mesh networks
  • Describe the functions of a LAN, Ethernet, IP address, subnet, gateway/router address, DNS, DHCP, NAT

Session overview / plans and delivery methods

  • Pre-Assessment
  • Lectures
  • Case Studies
  • Post-Assessments

Course Outline

Satellite Communications Overview

  • Common types of satellites
  • Comparing satellites
  • Orbits
  • Orbit types: GEO, LEO, MEO, HEO
  • Space Segment
  • Laws of satellite motion
  • Basic Components
  • Spacecraft, transponders, and launch vehicles
  • Transmitters
  • Transponder
  • Antennas
  • Power Generation
  • Payload
  • Propulsion
  • Launch vehicles
  • Spectrum
  • Bands
  • Channels
  • Carriers
  • Channelization
  • Satellite Access Techniques

Technical Overview of Common Satellite communications Terminology

  • EIRP, G/T, contours, and their relationships to dish size
  • Gains, losses, and levels
  • Fundamentals of dB and level calculations
  • Signals, noise and spectrums
  • Antennas, including side lobes, patterns and gain
  • Propagation, including rain fade, blockage, snow/ice effects
  • Satellite links, with breakdown of link budget concepts, link margins, and availability.
  • Polarization
  • Earth station and other equipment
  • Multiple Access Techniques
  • Access methods
  • SCPC, TDMA, TDM, DAMA, CDMA, OFDM, DVB
  • Single channel per carrier (SCPC)
  • Propagation Interference and Regulation
  • Payload Engineering
  • Spacecraft Engineering and Operations
  • Earth Station Engineering
  • Modems
  • Modulation and coding
  • Amplitude modulation
  • Frequency modulation
  • Phase modulation
  • Chanel coding and decoding
  • Footprints
  • Link budget
  • Link margin
  • Payload
  • Gateway
  • NOC
  • SOC
  • Horizontal and geographic satellite coordinates and look angles
  • Trajectories

Basic Overview of GMR-1

  • GMR-1: The basic circuit switched model
  • GmPRS: Adding support for packet data
  • Mobile broadband and internet protocols
  • Overview of SGSN, GGSN
  • Basic concepts behind  Ethernet, IP address, subnet, gateway/router address, DNS, DHCP, and NAT
  • GMR-1 3G
  • 3G Definitions by ITU-T and IMT-2000
  • Overview of CDMA, WCDMA and UMTS
  • GEO-Mobile Radio Interface
  • Terminal-to-Terminal Call (TtT)

Basic Transmission Principles

  • Satellite architecture and subsystems
  • Baseband signals
  • Analog transmission
  • Digital transmission
  • Key parameters: EIRP G/T, SFD, Input/Output
  • Backoff, C/No, Eb/No
  • Typical link budget, link margin and availability
  • Modulation systems (QPSK, OQPSK, MSK, 8PSK, and 16 QAM)
  • Basic aperture antenna definitions and relationships
  • Typical antenna configurations for satellite communications
  • Propagation and Interference
  • Radio noise
  • Interference between satellite networks
  • Interference with terrestrial networks

Network Architectures

  • Traffic multiplexing
  • Multiple access, and assignments strategies
  • Satellite Engineering for Communications Satellites

Properties of Bands

  • Availability
  • Current and projected Applications
  • UT/Terminal
  • Design process and suitability for manufacturing
  • Manufacturing process
  • Next generation technologies
  • Platforms for Terminal (Chips, OS, MMI, etc.)
  • Transmission (coding, modulations, etc.)

Ground Segment

  • Types of earth stations
  • Architecture of earth station
  • Design considerations
  • Earth station hardware
  • Antennas

RF Principals

  • IF and Baseband equipment
  • Terrestrial interface
  • Satellite tracking
  • Antennas

Overview of GSM, GPRS, EDGE, UMTS and LTE Technologies

  • Different components of a GSM system and what each does
  • SIM
  • BTS
  • BSC
  • MSC
  • HLR
  • VLR
  • EIR
  • SMSC
  • GGSN
  • SGSN
  • UMTS and LTE Architecture
  • W-CDMA, OFDMA/SC-FDMA and MIMO

User terminals

  • General UT design – different subsystems and components
  • Types of antennas and design
  • Capabilities and limitations
  • Product development process

Satellite Link Design Fundamentals

  • Transmission equation
  • Satellite link parameters
  • Frequency considerations
  • Propagation considerations
  • Techniques to counter propagation effects
  • Noise considerations
  • Interference related problems
  • Link design – procedure and link budget

 

Satellite Communications Training for non-engineers

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