5G and mmWave antenna engineering has received considerable attention in the wireless communication field over the past several years.
First of all, the impetus for developing 5G technology was to provide a rapid increase in mobile phone traffic, which required a higher date rate and bandwidth.
After much research, standardization was developed by the global partnership Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). In large part this was accomplished by implementing Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) technologies with a wide bandwidth characteristic crucial to improve the spectrum efficiency and channel capacity by utilizing the multipath property with no need for increasing the input power.
Additionally, the characteristics of high element isolation and broadband are possessed by the MIMO system to contribute promising performance.
The higher mutual coupling between the MIMO antenna elements affect the throughput of the MIMO antenna system. Consequently, to design a MIMO antenna system with a high element isolation was also a challenge.
Along with antenna designs, the millimeter wave spectrum (3–300 GHz) with its fast but short mmWaves have been mostly targeted by 5G technology, which further helped to achieve the higher bandwidth with a data rate up to several Gigabit-per-second (Gbps).
Another reason for choosing this spectrum range was that the lower spectrum’s portion was too crowded under the use of several wireless networks and applications like wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi), Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX), Bluetooth, Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM), and mobile communication, etc., while most of the higher portion of the spectrum was still not utilized, and could be exercised for 5G technology.
To use mmWaves (which have penetration issues) effectively, different MIMO antennas have been tried out covering the wide range of frequencies of the 5G targeted spectrum. Some of them have proposed the MIMO configuration for lower portion of spectrum; the four-antenna structure for instance covers the 5G mm-wave frequency band from 25.5–29.6 GHz with a peak gain of 8.3 dB.
Similarly, a MIMO array with an effective bandwidth of 3.4 to 3.6 GHz at −6 dB reference was also proposed for 5G applications.
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