5G NR refers to (New Radio), the standards set for 5G wireless technology by standards organization 3GPP.
The NR standard for 5G was developed to open up the spectrum above 6 GHz that had previously been unusable by cellular devices. The NR standard was needed after technologies were developed that allowed carriers to commercialize fast mmWaves in this spectrum.
The radio access technology (RAT) developed for 5G by 3GPP includes two frequency ranges: FR1, which operates below 6 GHz, and FR2, which includes bands above 24 GHz and into the extremely high frequency range above 50 GHz.
The 5G NR specifications were fast tracked to meet the rapid evolution of 5G the idea to 5G the reality.
5G utilizes OFDM (orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing), a waveform modulation technique also used by both LTE and IEEE 802.11 (Wi-Fi).
The technology gives 5G enhanced flexibility for a multitude of use cases, enabling it to support diverse spectrum bands, including mmWave bands with far higher available bandwidth, through the use of specialized technologies like scalable subcarrier spacing and massive MIMO, absolutely necessary for the implementation of radio beam steering and forming to mitigate propagation challenges in mmWave communications.
The waveform principle of OFDM is a digital multi-carrier modulation method in which a large number of closely spaced orthogonal sub-carrier signals are used to carry data on several parallel streams or channels. This means that information is transmitted across a number of parallel, narrow bands instead of a single wide band.
Another 5G NR basic, beamforming, is a technology that has become a reality in recent years and it offers to provide some significant advantages to 5G. Beamforming enables the beam from the base station to be directed toward the mobile. In this way the optimum signal can be transmitted to the mobile and received from it, whilst also cutting interference to other mobiles.
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